3D-Zeitschrift benötigt das Flash 9 Plugin von Adobe.
Download von adobe.com
in Ihrem Browser aktiviert und erlaubt ist.
Flight Book Fascination Aerospace
Flight Book Fascination Aerospace EADS Corporate Foundation, Paris 2009
Imprint: © 2009 EADS Corporate Foundation Fondation d'Entreprise EADS, 37 Boulevard de Montmorency, 75781 Paris Cedex 16, France http://www.fondation.eads.net/ Responsible: Marie-Claire Certiat, Déléguée Générale de la Fondation, Conception and Realisation: Faromedia creative network interactive GmbH & Co KG, Project Direction: Markus Wiegand, Content and Text: Dr. Michael Müller, Design and Layout: Monika Grötzinger, Illustrations: Michael Römer, Assistant Researcher: Brigitte Binder, Picture Research: Tess Richter, Didactics Consultant: Stefan Reißl, EADS Project Leaders: Marie-Claire Certiat, Thorsten Möllmann, Research and Verification: Richard Kleebaur, Dr. Andreas Schuster The circulation of this book or extracts of this book via film, radio, television, print, photomechanical reproduction or through entry into an electrical system is only allowed with the express approval of the EADS Corporate Foundation.
Preface Dear students, teachers, readers and dreamers, The inspiration behind Flight Book is to share with you the passion of the thousands of people at EADS and around the world who make flying in airplanes and helicopters possible, who help monitor the environment through satellite technology and who, with their ideas, lift men and women into space. Many of us, as we did as children, looked to the sky and asked what makes things fly. Flight Book, which was made possible by the EADS Corporate Foundation, is an informative and interactive guide to explain the basic ideas behind the science of flight. Additionally, the book endeavours to describe the technology needed to take men and women beyond earth's atmosphere, and share with you the ideas of those who have dedicated their lives to the future of aerospace. The research behind the creation of Flight Book involved many people including a very important group: the young generation, who dreams of becoming a technician, engineer, scientist, pilot or astronaut. We met with many young men and women and asked them what they wanted to know more about aerospace. Flight Book is our response to the many excellent questions we received. Flight Book is the result of the dedication and time of many members of our team at EADS, and I would like to recognize and thank in particular Marie-Claire Certiat, Thorsten Moellman, Richard Kleebaur and Dr. Andreas Schuster for all their efforts. Their passion for aerospace helped make this book a reality. Through this book, I hope you will come to have the same appreciation of aerospace science and technology as we have. Enjoy the reading. Sincerely, Dr. Jean J. Botti, EADS Chief Technical Officer
Contents Preface............................. 03 Dr. Jean J. Botti EADS Chief Technical Officer and President of the EADS Corporate Foundation On the Ground The Journey Begins .............. 08 What happens at the airport? Guardians of the Sky ............. 10 How air traffic controllers monitor air space Goods from the Air ............... 12 How airplanes supply us with what we need Fitness Check for Aircraft ...... 14 How airplanes are serviced A Dream Job with lots of Responsibility .................. 16 Pilots: The hard way to a job in the cockpit Quieter in the Air ................. 18 What airports and aircraft manufacturers are doing to reduce noise Network for Security............. 20 How aviation and satellites protect us from dangers Take-off Conquering the Skies ............ 24 From Emperor Shun to Count Zeppelin The Dream of Flying ............. 26 From the first motorised flight to wide-bodied aircraft Nature is Ingenious ............... 28 What can we learn from nature about flying? The Secret of Lift ................. 30 How airplanes are powered From Propeller to Jet ............. 32 How airplanes are powered Into the Air and Back Down Again ........................ 34 What happens at take-off and landing? Flying at Low Altitudes Flying like a Bird .................. 38 Gliding through the air with parachutes, hang gliders or paragliders Flying without an Engine ....... 40 How gliders can take to the air Total Privacy in the Air .......... 42 The many faces of private airplanes Flying in every Direction ........ 44 How helicopters are flown and steered All-rounders of the Skies ....... 46 Helicopter operations Highways in the Sky ............. 48 Flying and the future of local transport
Flying at High Altitudes High-Tech in the Air .............. 52 Innovations make flying safer and more comfortable Jobs in the Air ..................... 54 Not only pilots work in airplanes It's not always Clear.............. 56 How the weather and atmosphere affect flying Faster than You can Hear ....... 58 When airplanes break the sound barrier Birth of an Airbus ................. 60 How modern passenger jets are built An Airbus from many Countries............................ 62 The A380, like all Airbus models, is the result of a European collaboration Flying in the Future............... 64 How we will fly tomorrow In Orbit Outpost in Space .................. 68 Astronauts from different countries undertake research on the International Space Station ISS Directions from Space ........... 70 The European "Galileo" programme guarantees the future of satellite navigation News from Space ................. 72 How satellites support diversity in communications and television Observing the Earth from Space ......................... 74 How satellites help to protect the environment Taxi into Space .................... 76 Carrier rockets transport satellites into orbit Excursions into Space ........... 78 Will tourists soon be enjoying a bout of zero gravity? Interstellar Space Travel From Earth to Mars and Back ............................ 82 Travelling to other planets A View into the Depths of Outer Space .................... 84 Outer space telescopes and the new pictures of the cosmos Unbelievable Journeys through Space ..................... 86 Will we ever reach the unfathomable depths of space? Neighbours in Space ............. 88 Are there any other intelligent beings in space? Credits ............................ 90
The Journey Begins Every flight starts at the airport. On page 10, you can learn how modern airports are structured to accommodate a large number of passengers and numerous take-offs and landings. Guardians of the Sky The aircraft would not be able to fly safely without air traffic controllers and air space surveillance. On page 12, we explain why this surveillance is particularly important. Goods from the Air Many of the things that we need on a daily basis are transported via airfreight. You can read about how this works on page 14. Fitness Check for Airplanes Part of the reason airplanes are so safe is that they are constantly subjected to thorough maintenance checks. You can read about the most important maintenance work on page 16.
On the Ground Dream Job with lots of Responsibility In this chapter, we explain what pilots have to learn and what they are expected to be capable of doing. Page 18. Quieter in the Air On page 20, you can find out what airports and aircraft manufacturers do to reduce the noise impact. Network for Security Security is an important issue in a complicated world like ours. You can read what aviation and aerospace can do to enhance security on page 22.
ON THE GROUND AIRPORT The Journey Begins What happens at the airport? Aircraft take off and land at the airport. That sounds relatively simple. However, so that this can happen, many people and systems must all work together. Everything has to intertwine like a perfectly balanced piece of machinery after all, at large airports such as Frankfurt or Charles de Gaulle in Paris, over 1,200 aircraft take off and land, and around 150,000 passengers depart or arrive there each day. Most airports are managed today as self-contained commercial enterprises, which aim to deliver a good service to their customers the airlines and the passengers. Of course, equally important is security, which has two aspects: On the one hand it concerns the safety of the flight movements (the aircraft landing and taking off safely), and on the other hand the security to protect the passengers from criminals and terrorist attacks. Anyone who has ever flown is familiar with the thorough checks one has to go through before departure. The airport areas People check in and spend time in the Terminal (1) before departure. The Tower (2) watches over all aircraft and support vehicle movements on the ground and gives airplanes permission to take off and land. The aircraft are serviced on the Apron (3). All the airport's operations are coordinated in the Logistics Building (4). The Fire and Rescue Service (5) is prepared for any emergencies. The Hangar (6): Here the aircraft are maintained and, if necessary, repaired. Passengers who are not travelling until the next day can stay overnight in the Airport Hotel (7). Many passengers arrive at the airport by Train (8). Basically, a modern airport is a city in its own right: It has facilities and workshops (in which aircraft are maintained or overhauled), a fire and rescue service and a hospital, transport connections, shops and businesses and space for people to rest and spend their time while they are waiting. A functioning airport is a pre requisite today for any city that, which hopes to do international business. Only if it is easy to reach, is it considered attractive as an economic centre, a workplace and a place to live. explosives LIMS Electronicdetectionof aterials and other suspicious m Dr. Michael Kerkloh, CEO and Chairman of the Management Board of Munich Airport GmbH As Airport Director, I have to ensure the travellers and businesses have the best connection to the worldwide air transport network. At Munich Airport itself, we have around 600 businesses and agencies with approximately 30,000 employees. Day after day, about 100,000 passengers pass through the airport. We have to be ready for action 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. And the airport must always be flexible and able to react at short notice to unforeseen circumstances, such as heavy snowfall or a technical breakdown. To give a concise description of my main duties, I would say: My job is to keep everything running like clockwork. If airport management has contributed to making a really good team out of 30,000 individuals, then we have been successful. n Works n safer, EADS Innovatio In order to make flying eve st traces y to detect even the smalle has developed a technolog -based Ion Mobility called "Laser of certain materials: the soctrometer" (LIMS). Spe gers are split into that are found on passen With this, trace elements sequently analysed. s (ions) and sub electrically charged particle s results within e, very sensitive and give method is highly selectiv come This whether a passenger has ble proof of seconds. It will provide relia the smallest particle n suspicious materials, as eve . into recent contact with despite intensive cleaning skin or clings to clothing remains on the
Servicing the aircraft at the terminal Water tanker Fuel tanker Passenger bridge Catering truck Waste servicing truck Transporter and belt loader Before aircraft can take off, they have to travel along the taxiway before reaching the runway. Traffic signs show the way. For example, a sign saying "A2 7L 25R" means that the aircraft is located exactly at Position A2 on the taxiway to one of two parallel runways, in this case the runway 7L (left). 25 R (right) refers to the same runway when it is used in the opposite direction. This is the stopping point for taxiing airplanes when the runway is operated in low visibility conditions. This is to avoid unacceptable interference with the Instrument Landing System. Aircraft take off and land in turn on the runway against the direction of the prevailing wind. The tower personnel determine the take-off and landing direction accordingly.
ON THE GROUND THE SAFETY OF AIR TRAFFIC Guardians of the Sky How air traffic controllers monitor air space In the early days of flying, airplanes were able to take off and land where and when they wanted to. With flights few and far between, this really wasn't a problem. However, when aviation activities increased in North America and Europe after the First World War, flights needed to be coordinated. In the 1920s, national air traffic control authorities were formed, and had two tasks to fulfil: supply pilots with information such as weather reports, navigation advice and maps, and coordinate flights, take-offs and landings to prevent collisions from happening. Today, aviation without air traffic control is completely unthinkable, because large and busy airports such as those in Paris, London and Frankfurt, where airplanes take off and land just minutes apart, would simply end up in chaos. The responsibility for the smooth and safe flow of air traffic lies first and foremost with the air traffic controllers, who have one of the most responsible jobs in aviation. They oversee all flights in their assigned air space, they communicate via radio with the pilots, they grant permission to take off and land and they determine which route and at which altitude the pilots must fly. Flights using Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Before any instrument flight can be made, the pilot has to hand in a flight plan, which has to be approved by air traffic control. Before take-off, the pilot must call the so-called "Delivery" to get clearance for the flight. When all passengers have embarked and while still at the terminal, the pilots have to radio apron control. They require permission from them to start the engines. Once the aircraft has left the parking area, ground control takes over responsibility. They direct the pilot by radio via taxiways to the holding point at the runway. From there, the tower takes over. The pilot announces: "ready for take-off", and the tower gives permission when the situation allows. Once the aircraft is in the air, departure control takes over and guides the airplane out of the airport's air space. In cruising flight, en-route control guides the airplane. They monitor all flight activities in their area of responsibility on the radar and keep all aircraft on their respective course to prevent collisions. When the airplane approaches and lands, the different controllers are engaged in reverse order to guide the airplane to its parking position at the terminal. Air Space Segmentation The air space segmentation is usually defined by using the flight levels: space upwards of FL 100; from FL 130 to FL 660 near the Alps) and below FL 100 in the vicinity of civil airports. or above the control zones of civil airports as controlled air space. C(pronouncedas:Charlie)=Controlledairspace(usuallytheentireair D(pronouncedas:Delta)=Controlledairspaceas"controlzone"(D-CTR) E Trusting the eyes depending on instruments Most flying is done under what are called Visual Flight Rules (VFR), in which the pilots navigate the airplane by visual reference to the ground. They are themselves responsible for seeing and avoiding other aircraft. In conditions of poor visibility at night and in bad weather, flights can be made under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). In this case, the pilots use ground-based navigational aids to fly from one location to another. A flight plan has to be filed and the pilots are to a certain degree "led" by the air traffic controllers. For IFR flights, pilots have to be trained and licensed and airplanes have to have the necessary equipment. All scheduled airline flights must be conducted as IFR flights, regardless of good or bad visibility. (pronounced as: Echo)= Controlled air space, for instrument flights and flights in visual conditions. This is the air space commonly used for normal cross country flights in visual flight conditions. G(pronouncedas:Golf)=Uncontrolledairspaceusedonlyforflightsin visual conditions.
Air spaces To facilitate the work of the air traffic controllers, the air space is divided into different zones and segments. Every country does this in a slightly different way, but overall, the principles are quite similar. To separate the air traffic in layers of altitude, the criterion of flight level (FL) was introduced. The number represents the altitude in feet, omitting the last two zeros. "FL 80" is therefore the flight level at an altitude of 8000 feet (about 2438m). The altitude is determined by measuring the air pressure, which decreases with increasing altitude. The flight levels are always calculated by using a standardised air pressure, which all airplanes have to set on their altimeter at their cruising altitude. To land safely, the altimeter must be reset to the local air pressure, which is information the pilot receives from the control tower. Airways in Europe To facilitate IFR flights, the air space is provided with so-called airways. The air traffic controllers direct the pilots along these airways as though they were highways in the sky. Just like roads on the ground, airways have main streets, crossings and junctions. Airways are marked by radio beacons (ground-based transmitters), sending out radio signals, which are displayed on the navigation instruments in the cockpit. The airways with all their classifications and associated radio frequencies are plotted on IFR navigation charts.
ON THE GROUND FREIGHT AND LOGISTICS Goods from the Air How airplanes supply us with what we need Most people associate the term "airplane" with passenger jets. However, passenger transport only makes up just over half the flight movements (take-offs and landings) at most large airports. The rest is air cargo traffic. Today, almost all kinds of goods are transported by airfreight from machines, computers and clothes, to food such as fish or fruit. Even cars are sometimes transported by air, although traditional methods of transportation such as ships, trains or trucks are more common for such goods. Those who have ever tasted a so-called "air mango" will literally have a taste for the advantages of airfreight on their tongue: There's a huge difference in taste between a fruit that is left to ripen in the tropics and then flown to Europe, and one that is picked in an unripe condition and transported by ship, ripening during the journey. If you were to load a ship with ripe mangos, they would have gone bad by the time they reached us. As with passenger planes, one of the biggest advantages of airfreight is speed it's simply much faster! A whale in the sky People who watch this aircraft take off in Toulouse never cease to be amazed that such an enormous mass can lift off the ground at all. The Airbus A300-600ST (ST stands for "Super Transporter") is the consummate cargo aircraft; it is capable of transporting more freight volume than any other aircraft. The A300-600ST has been nicknamed "Beluga" because it looks like the great whale; it transports nothing less than entire aircraft sections. Since Airbus planes are built in a European joint venture, wings and fuselage parts have to be flown to Airbus final assembly sites in Toulouse and Hamburg. This Super Transporter has been in service since 1996, and has been a great success. Cargo planes come in all sizes: from the cargo version of large passenger planes to single or twin-engined airplanes; for example those that supply small islands. They mainly differ from passenger airplanes in that they have a large cargo door at the nose or at the side of the fuselage, where large containers, or even the occasional car, can be loaded. An amazing number of goods can fit into large cargo airplanes. The largest can transport the volume of over ten large trucks. Experts project that airfreight will become even more important in the next few years, as it will become essential in a global economy to transport goods quickly over large distances. Building the cargo door is the main remodelling job New out of old: passenger aircraft become cargo aircraft The hangars of the Elbe Flugzeugwerke (EFW) are located at Dresden airport, where older passenger airplane types such as the Airbus A300 and A310 disappear into the hangar, only to reappear as almost new cargo airplanes. These Airbus planes, which have been transporting passengers for ten or fifteen years, are being replaced by newer, more comfortable models. However, they are far from being "old" in the sense of being unfit to fly. During the conversion to cargo planes, the main deck is cleared out, a large cargo door is added, and the Airbus gets a second lease of life as an "airborne beast of burden".
Quick Loading Anyone watching the loading procedure of a cargo airplane for the first time is usually surprised at how quickly the huge space can be filled; the loading is done using state-of-the-art technology. First, the cargo pallet or container is pushed from the loading vehicle through the cargo door and into the fuselage. Its floor is fitted with a number of wheels that are powered by electric motors (the so-called "Power Drive Units"). Using a control panel, the cargo can be transported exactly to a pre-determined location, where it is then secured. Distribution of the cargo is a form of art the load must be distributed in such a way that the centre of gravity is within the allowed limits and the flight properties of the aircraft are not affected.
ON THE GROUND AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Fitness Check for Airplanes How airplanes are serviced Hard to believe, but true: An airplane has a few million components, if you count all the nuts and bolts! So who is actually responsible for these highly complicated mechanical and electronic systems, so that they are always maintained to the highest technical standard? Airplanes are the world's safest mode of transportation. However, their lifespan and reliability depends on perfect technical maintenance and regular, preventive safety checks. A sophisticated maintenance system of checks and necessary repairs was developed to cover this requirement. Every large airport has halls for maintenance, which are called hangars. Mobile teams of specially qualified engineers and mechanics work there. They can repair damage to the structure and systems of the airplane, or install spare parts within hours. After a prescribed number of flight hours, a various of parts of an airplane must be replaced. As an example, contrary to the engine of a car, an airplane engine can't be replaced only when it has failed: to wait that long would not satisfy safety requirements. Similarly to the human body, which replaces cells every seven years, an airplane is effectively "new" after a few years at least as regards the safety of the most important parts. Due to this intensive maintenance, it is not unusual for an airplane to have a lifespan of 20, even 30 years. Even after such a long service life, they are just as safe as brand new airplanes. Depending on the time scale and range of work planned, there is a difference between regular maintenance checks and the complete overhaul, which takes place only every few years and after many thousands of flight hours. In addition, further diagnostics are carried out while an airplane is in flight. Its key systems are continuously monitored, any noticed defects being promptly reported by radio directly to the maintenance computer on the ground. Ongoing planned maintenance The most frequent maintenance unit is the pre-flight check, when the captain or co-pilot checks the aircraft before every flight for external visual damage. The ramp check takes place once a day. The mechanics test individual functions, check the tyres and brakes, and top up the oil, hydraulic fluid and water. The weekly service check enhances the daily maintenance by adding further tests of aircraft systems. Every 350 to 650 flight hours (about once a month) a bigger maintenance package is carried out, the so-called A-check. Here, the engineers carry out a meticulous check of the cabin and simple tasks like oil change and filter inspections. At the B-check, all systems, such as emergency equipment and navigation units are examined. A very thorough and time consuming inspection the C-check is due every 15 to 18 months. The entire structure of the aircraft is examined through detailed system checks. The most comprehensive maintenance unit is the D-check. This takes place every six to ten years. The aircraft is dismantled to its core and effectively newly rebuilt. The D-check takes four to six weeks and can cost a few million euros.
The C-check Every passenger plane must undergo a C-check every 15 to 18 months. (1) The outer shell of the aircraft is checked for hairline cracks through ultrasound. (2) All the important parts of the engine are thoroughly checked. (3) All cable systems of the airplane are examined. (4) Every instrument in the cockpit has to prove its functionality. High tech for even better maintenance Today, maintenance crews still have to rely on printed hand books, instruction manuals and similar sources of information, which are also available on a computer. To save time and also to improve work safety, researchers are developing the means to provide the mobile service personnel with the relevant information in a digital form wherever they work on the aircraft. Information may be projected onto special goggles, leaving the hands free to work faster and more efficiently.
ON THE GROUND PILOT TRAINING A Dream Job with lots of Responsibility Pilots: The hard way to a job in the cockpit Being a pilot or even the captain of an airliner is seen as a dream job by many people. After all, who wouldn't like to be flying over the snow-covered Alps, or experience a sunrise over Sugarloaf Mountain in Rio de Janeiro from up high in a cockpit. However, being a pilot is not only very exciting, but also a very demanding career that requires good mental and physical capabilities to work under pressure. Not everyone can meet all the requirements to pass the challenging aptitude tests and medical examinations for a pilot's job with the airlines or the military. Large airlines, such as Lufthansa, Air France or British Airways, train their pilots in their own flying schools, but a professional pilot's licence can also be obtained through a private flying school. Of course, it is also possible to enter a professional career in the military and be trained to become the pilot of a highly complex fighter aircraft, such as the Eurofighter Typhoon. During the normal two-year training, the student pilots complete around 320 flying hours and eventually earn a commercial pilot's licence. Even then, however, it is still a long way to becoming the captain of an airliner. Pilots have to spend up to 13 years as a copilot and complete around 5,000 flying hours, before they are finally promoted to captain. Since the cockpit of a modern jet resembles a flying computer centre, today's pilots are more like managers of the airplane's systems rather than just piloting the plane. Getting the weather forecasts, the planning of fuel consumption and of the routes to be flown, including alternative airports, are all additional tasks the captain and co-pilot must take into consideration for a safe flight. More and more, the routine tasks of flying are being taken over by electronic equipment. The training of pilots therefore concentrates ever more on the right behaviour in emergency situations. When something unforeseen happens, it is crucial that the pilot reacts quickly, almost by reflex, rather than by deliberating the problem at length. Flight simulators have therefore become an important training element. Here pilots not only have the opportunity to become familiar with a new type of airplane, but above all, to practise, over and over again, their fast and correct reaction in emergency situations. Instruments in the cockpit Engine controls (1): The pilot accelerates using this lever. Foot pedal (2) for the rudder. Flight data is shown on the Multi-Function Display MFD (3). Pilots control the flight plan through the Flight Management System FMS (4). Pilots can see on the Navigation Display ND (5) in which direction they are flying and whether they are deviating from the planned route. Data from the most important flight instruments is combined in the Primary Flight Display PFD (6). The modern Airbus aircraft are steered using the Sidestick (7) (a type of joystick). The majority of the systems-related controls (such as electrics, fuel, hydraulics, lighting and air conditioning) are located in the Overhead Panel (8) above the pilots' heads. Requirements for pilot training in Europe · Minimum age at the start of training is 18 years, and 29 years is the maximum. · The large airlines demand a minimum of A-Levels. · Fluent English is required · EU citizenship · Holder of an unrestricted passport · Physically fit · Good eyesight (+/- 3 dioptres) · Characteristics such as being a responsible, disciplined and dependable person, with the ability to work in a team, and having a solid motivation for taking on this responsible job.
Yann Cochard, First Officer with Air France When I was about 18 years old and had to choose what my job was to be, I realized that it would not suit me to be stuck in an office all day long. I loved to travel, to meet many people and to experience different cultures, and so it became evident to me that I wanted to be a pilot. The training of a pilot begins with "basic" flying, which means that you must first learn the "art of flying" on small, single-engine aircraft. Then, training becomes more and more sophisticated with twin-engine aircraft, followed by flying on instruments to be able to fly in all weather conditions. After three years, you get a commercial pilot licence and after 1,500 more hours of flight experience you can get an airline transport pilot licence (ATPL), which will eventually allow you to work on long-haul aircraft such as the A380. As aircraft are becoming more and more sophisticated, the training follows suit. Also, when you consider that new aircraft are more reliable than older ones, it means that the pilots have to be drilled for failures that are more and more hypothetical and with an increasingly smaller chance of actually ever happening. For me, the most exciting part of this job is to be responsible for hundreds of passengers and to fly them safely and pleasantly to their destination. Flying on the ground: How a flight simulator works The perfectly replicated cockpit of a particular aircraft type, complete with the original instrument layout, a flight simulator re-enacts the flight accurately and is deceptively real. The extreme closeness to reality in a cockpit simulator is the result of the collaboration of extensive computer-driven technology systems: a) Motion system: The flight simulator stands on hydraulically or electrically operated legs, which are able to produce a realistic feeling of movement and speed for the pilot. b) Sight system: More than 100 airports across the world, various weather conditions and times of day, as well as landscapes are realistically reproduced as artificial images. c) Sound system: Produces realistic flight noise. 3 6 5 2 1 4
ON THE GROUND NOISE REDUCTION Quieter in the Air What airports and aircraft manufacturers are doing to reduce noise A jet flying at 11,000 metres can hardly be heard by those on the ground. However, for people living close to a large airport with many take-offs and landings, airplane noise can be quite disruptive. Airports, airlines and airplane manufacturers have been aware of this problem for many years. They have therefore cooperated and worked extensively on various solutions and measures to reduce noise pollution to a minimum. For example, noise reduction procedures have been introduced for take-off and landing, departure routes changed, and flight routes combined. Today, airplanes take off at much steeper angles than in the past, so that they get out of earshot of residents living near airports as fast as possible. Night flights between 22.00hrs and 06.00hrs have also been considerably restricted and sometimes even banned completely. Weatherproof microphones constantly measure flight noise to record airplanes exceeding the limits. Noise protection walls are installed at certain airports to reduce sound propagation at ground level. Many airport authorities offer comprehensive programmes for passive noise protection by installing free of charge soundproofed windows and ventilation in people's homes near airports. The aviation industry is also working hard on noise reduction, and airplanes are indeed becoming ever quieter. Over the last 30 years, mainly due to innovative engine technology, the noise of modern airplanes has been reduced to about 30% of former levels. And by 2020, the European aviation industry has committed itself to achieving a further reduction by 50 percent. Airplanes are especially loud at take-off, when the highest thrust has to be produced and the engines are operating at full power. At a distance of 700 metres, the noise of an Airbus A320 taking off is measured at around 70 decibels. A city bus heard from across the street can be more than twice as loud (82 decibels), while the pain threshold for our ears is at around 130 decibels! Zero-Splice Inlets: Quieter engines Knowing that forward engine noise represents around 30% of the total aircraft noise, Airbus engineers found out that eliminating even small gaps between the different sections of the air inlet in front of the engine considerably reduces the engine noise. They developed the socalled "Zero-Splice Inlet", a seamless, single-piece, soundabsorbing lining of the air inlet made from carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics. The idea seems so simple but required a technical revolution in design and manufacturing processes that lead to award-winning technology bringing about the desired noise reduction. This new aeronautic standard is already implemented on the Airbus A380 and contributes to the remarkably low noise levels of the world's largest passenger airplane. What actually causes airplane noise? Jet engine noise is generated by the mixing of the hot exhaust gases with the colder ambient air, by the combustion of the kerosene inside the engine and by the rotating compressor and turbine blades. At high power settings for take-off, it is louder than the airframe noise, which can be heard when an airplane is landing. This noise is caused by the air flowing over the airplane's body and wings, and in particular the landing flaps and the landing gear.
From sound to noise The volume or sound inte nsity impacting on the hum an ear is measured in units of decibels (dB). It represents a logarithm ic scale that is referenced to the hearing threshold level. A reduct ion in sound intensity by 10 decibels correspon ds to halving the level. Sou nds that lie in the range above 85 to 90 dec ibels are considered unc omfortable and disturbing and therefo re perceived as noise. Sound levels for various Normal conversation ..... Classical concert or a bab 40dB ........ 90dB Jackhammer.................... ............................................1 00dB A plane taking off at a dist ance of 10m.................... .....120dB Pain threshold (e.g. Chi nese firecracker) .......... 130 - 140dB y crying ......................... sound sources: ................................................. At what level a sound bec omes noise depends on how it is perceived: The ticking of an alarm clo ck, which barely reaches 20dB, can be very disruptive in the stillness of the night. Alain Porte, Head of Air Inlet Design in the Wing/Pylon and Nacelle Centre of Excellence at Airbus in Toulouse and Inventor of the Year 2007 in the EADS Hall of Fame: We view ourselves as engineers first of all that's our job; secondly, we're scientists, by academic training for some of us; and lastly, we're inventors you will find our names on patents that have stood the real-world test. Our inventions are in the area of air inlets, which benefit the environment by reducing noise and the engine-specific fuel consumption. While everyone else believed the potential for noise reduction in engines had long been realised, we discovered that the splices in the air inlet scattered the noise and allowed it to escape unabsorbed. It was then a joint effort of multidisciplinary teams to come up with the solution, the "Zero-Splice Inlet". But we don't plan to rest on our laurels and we are continuing our work to make future Airbus airplanes even quieter. The blue area shows where sound at a level of 85dB can be heard on the take-off of a modern Airbus aircraft; the red area indicates the variation in noise from an older airplane.
ON THE GROUND GLOBAL SECURITY Network for Security How aerospace helps to protect us from dangers We are living in a world that is becoming ever more complex and where the population continues to grow. In this world, catastrophes and security threats can have an impact on thousands, even millions of people. A natural disaster that affects a city, as did the flooding of New Orleans in 2005, can destroy the livelihood of hundreds of thousands of people. A terrorist attack like the one in New York on 11th September 2001, when airplanes were flown into the two high-rise buildings of the World Trade Centre, cost the lives of thousands of people. That is why efficient security systems are more important today than at any other time in the history of mankind: Systems that can warn people of catastrophes in time and help bring them to safety, and also systems that can bring quick and efficient help to victims after a disaster. And particularly at major events, such as the Olympic Games or the Football World Cup, where a large number of people gather, specific security measures are one of the most important requirements for them to even take place at all. Modern security systems, nowadays available in most countries, specifically make use of aerospace technologies. Earth surveillance satellites can give an early warning of storms brewing or of other natural disasters about to happen. Communication satellites enable quick communications for security and disaster relief forces. Surveillance aircraft can identify threats in time and helicopters can monitor and bring rescue personnel and supplies to the affected areas. The cooperation and teamwork between the individual elements of the security system can only be effective if it is based on a good network. Only if all the forces are well coordinated, can their respective strengths be maximised. Modern communication and information technologies play a huge part here. In future, constant improvements in networking and communication are therefore important areas of research for scientists and engineers in the quest to make the world a safer place. Satellites detect problems early on and they ensure quick communications. Helicopters are used for observation and can transport people and supplies quickly to places not accessible by other modes of transport. Water bomber against forest fires Two factors are vital in extinguishing a forest fire: A vast amount of water needs to be brought to the site of the blaze, and it has to be done as quickly as possible. EADS, Rolls-Royce and the Russian company Irkut are jointly marketing an amphibian airplane that can carry 12,000 litres of water to drop on forest fires at one time. The Be-200 has twice the capacity of other amphibians and thereby can make the fire fighting operation much more efficient, particularly because it is also twice as fast as other such airplanes.
Surveillance aircraft on patrol An overview can best be gained from the air: Many countries make use of this when it comes to monitoring coastlines and hard to access areas of land. Modern surveillance airplanes, such as the CASA CN-235 are equipped with the latest technologies for their task. For example, the airplane is fitted with a gyro-stabilized turret housing TV cameras and high-resolution, long-range infrared sensors. With the help of this equipment, problems, threats and crisis scenarios can be identified early on. Surveillance aircraft protect coast lines and the hinterland. Modern signalling and communications technologies enable the networking of all elements of the security systems. An unmanned air vehicle, a so-called UAV or drone, provides surveillance over land or sea. Drones: unmanned scout "Drones" is the term used for unmanned aircraft, which are either controlled from the ground, or programmed in such a way that they can find their own route. Originally, drones were primarily used by the military, but now they are increasingly becoming part of civil security systems. Drones identify oil slicks on the ocean surface and they find forest fires, they watch coastlines and they shadow suspects. This means that they free up helicopters or airplanes, whose crews may be needed elsewhere more urgently.
Conquering the Skies The most important steps in history to fly like a bird read about Emperor Shun, Count Zeppelin and many others on page 24. The Dream of Flying How people fulfilled their dream of flying: You can follow the most important steps to modern aviation on page 26. Nature is Ingenious The natural environment serves as a model: Read how modern airplane technology takes its cues from the natural environment on page 28.
Take-off The Secret of Lift How come airplanes can fly even though they are heavier than air? We reveal the secrets of aerodynamics on page 30. From Propeller to Jet Airplanes have to accelerate in order to take off. You can see on page 32 which kind of engines are used to attain the necessary speeds. Into the Air and Back Down Again Take-offs and landings are the two most challenging manoeuvres for a pilot. What exactly happens during these phases of the flight? Find out more on page 34.
TAKE-OFF THE DREAM OF FLYING Conquering the Skies From Emperor Shun to Count Zeppelin Man's desire to conquer the skies and fly like a bird is as old as humanity. Myths and legends in all cultures are full of inventive characters who can either fly, or who are carried up and away by giant birds. According to a legend dating back to about 2230 B.C, the Chinese emperor Shun is said to have learnt the art of flying in order to escape from captivity. A similar tale can be found in Greek mythology. It recounts the story of Daedalus, a brilliant inventor and architect who was in the service of Minos, the king of Crete. He wanted to escape from the island together with his son Icarus and succeeded by using artificial wings made of feathers held together by beeswax. However, Icarus foolishly ignored his father's warning not to fly too high and got to close to the sun. The wax began to melt, and Icarus fell into the sea near the island of Samos. In , the Brazilian Jesuit priest Lourenço de Gusmão made a spectacular attempt at flying in the King of Portugal's palace. Gusmão lit a fire under one of his paper balloons, which made the model take off and fly, only to get entangled in a curtain, catch fire and burn some of the furniture. He repeated the experiment successfully on the next day. His passenger-carrying model called "Passarola" or "Big Bird" from 1709 was probably too heavy to fly, had it ever been built. In in Paris, in front of a crowd of onlookers, the French Montgolfier brothers managed to achieve the first manned ascent to 300m in a hot air balloon. In , the British aviation pioneer George Cayley created the first flying machine that had all the components of a modern airplane, such as wings and a horizontal and vertical tail (empennage). The story of modern avition really began in and ,withtheflyingexperiments of the German engineer Otto Lilienthal and the Frenchman Clément Ader. 1709 Man is not a bird Giovanni Alfonso Borelli was a physics professor in Pisa and Messina. When, in 1680, he heard about the unsuccessful flying attempts with flapping wings, he started to compare the muscles of a bird with those of a human being. He discovered that the muscles a bird uses to beat its wings make up about a sixth of its body weight. A man's arm and chest muscles make up less than a hundredth of his body weight. This meant that it was completely impossible for a human being to fly by using flapping wings! 1783 1804 1890 1891 1900 In , the famous artist, scientist and naturalist Leonardo da Vinci showed his powers of invention with the sketch of a helicopter and, three years later, with the drawing of a parachute. In , the Italian Jesuit priest Francesco de Lana was the first person to design an airship that was supposed to be lighter than air. He falsely believed that you simply had to attach ultra-thin copper spheres, from which the air had been extracted, to a boat-shaped body so that it would rise up in the air. If ever built, the copper spheres, however, would not have withstood the ambient air pressure. 1493 In , the airship pioneer and officer Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin constructed the first dirigible, a type of airship that later was referred to as a "zeppelin". 1670
Leonardo da Vinci In the 15th century, the famous universal genius Leonardo da Vinci started to design the first flying machine. The most important problem that needed solving was how to get the flying machine into the air. In 1493, da Vinci had the idea that you could propel yourself into the air with a kind of a screw. He made a sketch of a helicopter that was supposed to rise vertically into the air through the help of a screw-shaped (Greek: helix) wing (Greek: oteron). He thereby created the word helicopter, which is still in use today. Around 1483, he completed the drawing of a parachute, and in 1485, he made the first sketch of the so-called "ornithopter", which was to be propelled by flapping a set of wings powered by the arms and legs. Leonardo da Vinci was way ahead of his time in terms of his technical and mechanical knowledge. However, there is no evidence that anyone ever tried to build, or even fly, his "ornithopter". Otto Lilienthal and Clément Ader: The Founding Fathers of Modern Air Travel Otto Lilienthal was a talented engineer, who had harboured a keen interest in flying since his youth. He was still fascinated by the idea of a person flying with wings. Together with his brother in 1867, he started to conduct methodical studies into airfoils, angle of attack, etc. He investigated the basic principles of flight through observing how birds fly. In 1891, he managed to fly seven metres through the air with his glider "Möwe" (seagull). A year earlier, the French aviation pioneer Clément Ader had already flown 50 metres in the palace grounds of Armainvillers, using a motorised aircraft! His "Eole" was powered by a 20 horsepower steam engine and had a four-bladed propeller. Unfortunately, the first powered flight in the world was made without witnesses and was therefore not recognised. Hence, the honour of being the first people to fly in a powered airplane went to the Wright brothers (see following page).
TAKE-OFF THE DREAM OF FLYING The Dream of Flying From the first motorised flight to wide-bodied aircraft 1903 The American brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright built on the experience of Clément Ader and Otto Lilienthal. On the Atlantic coast of North Carolina in 1903, they were the first to achieve stable flight in a powered airplane they called the "Flyer". With its 12 horsepower piston engine they succeeded in making four flights on that day, the longest of which lasted 59 seconds and covered a distance of 260 metres. 1909 In 1909, the Frenchman Louis Blériot caused a sensation: With his monoplane "Blériot XI", he succeeded in making the first cross-Channel flight. 1914 From 1914, the beginning of the First World War, airplanes such as the Fokker Albatros D III or the Morane-Saulnier MS AI, were used for military purposes. 1919 1927 In 1919, the Junkers F 13 was the first all-metal airplane built specially for passenger flight: It had two seats in the cockpit and four for passengers. In the same year, the Farman F60 Goliath started flying regularly between Paris and London, making it the first international route. In 1927, the American Charles Lindbergh successfully made the first solo flight across the North Atlantic. 33.5 hours after taking off from New York and with 5,810 kilometres behind him, he landed his plane, the "Spirit of St Louis", safely at the Paris airport. 1931 In 1931, the German airplane manufacturer Junkers produced a three-engined freight and passenger plane, the Junkers Ju 52 (known as "Auntie Ju or Iron Annie"). Like few other aircraft, the Ju 52 was renowned in civil aviation for its safety and reliability. 1935 In 1935, the Dewoitine D 338 entered service to become the most successful passenger airplane of its time. 1936 In 1936, Heinrich Focke built the first fully controllable helicopter in the world, the FW61, which had two three-bladed rotors mounted on steel tube outriggers.
1939 A new age of aviation began in 1939 with the Heinkel He 178 the era of jet airplanes, which were capable of flying at much higher speeds. Second World War 1952 During the Second World War, at speeds of up to 575km/h, fast fighter planes, such as the German Focke Wulf Fw 190 and the French Dewoitine D520 engaged in air combat. In 1952, the De Havilland Comet was the first commercial passenger jet airplane to come into regular service. Following a series of accidents due to metal fatigue, it was redesigned and afterwards flew for many years with great success. 1955 In 1955, the Alouette II was the first mass-produced helicopter with turbine engines; several of these are still in service. 1959 1968 From 1959, the Caravelle, produced by the French company Sud Aviation, entered regular service. The Caravelle was one of the most successful passenger jets of the sixties for short and medium haul flights. In 1968, the Franco-British Concorde introduced supersonic flight for passengers. On Concorde, a flight from Paris to New York took between 3 and 3.5 hours. It was in service until 2003 and set new standards in technology and innovation. 1970 The age of wide-bodied jets commenced in 1970. Boeing developed a totally new airplane, the Boeing 747, which became known as the "Jumbo Jet". Depending on its seating configuration, the 747 can carry around 400 passengers. 1972 In 1972, the twin-engined Airbus A300, flew for the first time. It was produced by the new European Airbus consortium for short and medium haul flights. 2005 2005 saw the first flight of the fourengined, double-decker, wide-body Airbus A380, which can carry more than 800 passengers, depending on its seating configuration. The A380 is the largest passenger jet in the world and it can fly a distance of 15,000km non-stop.
TAKE-OFF BIONICS Nature is Ingenious What can we learn from nature about flying? "Bionics" refers to the relatively new science of learning from nature and applying this to design and engineering in modern technology. The aim of the scientists is to understand nature's "inventions" in living things, to interpret them and to make them useful to man. Biologists and engineers as well as designers and even philosophers work together in the field of bionics to unravel the mysteries of perfectly functioning nature and then to turn them into innovative technologies. Everything that has developed in the realms of animals and plants is the result of an optimisation process that went through more than three billion years of evolution offering a huge treasury of ideas that can potentially be applied to the development of technologies. In terms of material properties and flying characteristics, insects and birds far exceed anything that man can technically build: For example, no airplane or helicopter has the outstanding flight characteristics of a dragonfly. The gliding flight of birds served man early as an example and motivation to make the dream of flying a reality and to build airplanes. Leonardo da Vinci (1452 1519), the universal genius, can be described as the first bionic engineer. He observed the flight of birds and designed a flapping-wings machine, a helicopter and a parachute. Only the time he lived in prevented his ideas from becoming reality. Otto Lilienthal was also a forerunner of bionics. He studied closely how a stork's wing is built and thereby discovered how lift is produced. He constructed the first flight apparatus, with which he made successful gliding flights in the years 1891 to 1896. His book "Birdflight as a Basis for the Art of Flying" of 1889 is an undisputed classic of bionic engineering. It wasn't only birds and insects that served as examples for aeronautical engineering. Engineers copied the principle of recoil for jet propulsion from jellyfish and octopuses. The winged seed of the maple tree served as the very first model of a propeller. The "copying of nature" goes further: Researchers found that various animals could survive for months in temperatures well below the freezing point. They can do this because they have certain proteins in their cells which prevent ice crystals from forming. Engineers now want to investigate whether these "antifreeze proteins" can be used on the surface of airplane wings to prevent the build-up of ice. This would be an important step forward in aeronautics, improving maintenance and flight safety at the same time. Clean surfaces with the lotus effect The lotus plant has tiny wax crystals on the surface of its leaves: It remains pristine and white, even in the midst of swampy and contaminated conditions. The microstructure of the leaf surface allows even the smallest amount of rain or fog to clean the surface and protect the plant from disease. This so-called lotus effect is borrowed from nature to build liquidrepellent and easy-to-clean "nano-surfaces". Ultra-thin protective layers, scratch-resistant coatings for windows and interior panelling as well as antibacterial surfaces can be of use in airplanes. Normal surface: (1) Water droplets predominantly flow over the dirt particles. Lotus effect: (2) The rolling droplets wash away the dirt particles.
Prof. Dr. Ingo Rechenberg, Professor of Bionics and Evolutionary Technology at the TU Berlin Bionics experts are inspired by the productive efficiency of biological evolution. They try to understand and mimic the workings of the natural environment. Airplane design, for example, is often the result of careful observation of the "mechanics" of bird flight, and modern airplanes increasingly resemble their natural role models. One of the most important fields of current bionics research is concerned with possible ways of reducing aerodynamic drag. I travel to the Sahara every year to study the so-called "sandfish" lizard, for example, which can "swim" like a fish through the sand. This creature has developed a layer of scaly skin that reduces its frictional resistance in sand to a minimum. Another important field of research is concerned with self-repairing systems. The capacity to apply the self-healing processes of living organisms to technical devices may well play a significant role in the future. Riblets Shark skin in the air The shark's upper layer of skin consists of small and closely packed scales. They have sharp-edged little grooves that lie parallel to the flow and hence reduce the resistance of the water flowing over them. This effect is also useful in the air: A special foil was developed, which was similar to the skin surface of a shark, the so-called "riblet foil", and airplanes were partially covered with this foil for test purposes. The drag of the airplane was noticeably reduced and so was the fuel consumption. However, the higher cost of maintenance and other practical aspects of a foil-covered airplane in its day-to-day operation have so far prevented the widespread use of riblet foils on airplanes. An aerodynamic trick: Winglets Airplanes consume large amounts of fuel due to the drag caused by the powerful vortex at the wingtips. Engineers have therefore analysed the wings of gliding birds (e.g. buzzard, condor, eagle, vulture and stork), which have characteristically slotted wingtips. In flight, their primary feathers are bend upwards and become staggered in height. This has the effect of reducing the drag by spreading and weakening the vortices at the wing tip. To attain a similar effect to save energy by reducing drag, bionic engineers developed the winglets found on most Airbus types.
TAKE-OFF AERODYNAMICS The Secret of Lift Why aircraft can fly How can something heavier than air possibly fly? Why doesn't an aircraft fall from the sky, just as an apple falls from a tree, but instead manages to defy the pull of gravity? This is a question man has been asking himself for thousands of years. The Greek saga about Daedalus and Icarus shows that mankind has always dreamt of being able to fly. This story is about a father and his son fleeing from captivity by making wings for themselves out of wax and feathers. In the real world, it was the birds that first inspired man to build wings for himself. Birds were thought to somehow "push" themselves upwards by beating their wings. But if this were the case, then why didn't swifts and albatrosses, which can glide for considerable distances without beating their wings, not fall to the ground? In the 18th century, the Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli found the answer to this question by discovering the principles of lift. At a certain speed, particles of air flowing over the curved upper side of the wing move faster than those flowing under it. This results in a lower pressure on the upper surface, which causes the higher air pressure under the wing to push the bird or the plane up in the air. After that discovery, it still took about another 150 years for man to finally fulfil his dream of flying (not counting lighter-than-air balloons). Besides finding the right shape for the wings, the most important technical problem to solve was how to reach the speed that will create enough lift for an airplane to take off. The solution only came with the inventions of the internal combustion engine and the propeller. Earlier trials with gliders, such as those carried out by Otto Lilienthal at the end of the 19th century, brought important new insights. The real breakthrough in building viable flying machines, however, came when the attempts to copy birds through trial and error were replaced by the application of engineering methods that had emerged in other industries at the time. After more than a hundred years since the first powered flight, the shape of an airplane's wing has evolved to what can be seen when one is looking out of the window of a modern Airbus. Engineers in the branch of science called "aerodynamics" are the ones who are still working on further optimising the lift created by an airplane's wings. Howmuchaccelerationisnecessaryfortake-off? To achieve the lift necessary for take-off, an airplane has to accelerate to a certain speed (called velocity in physics). The force due to this acceleration presses the passengers against the backrest of their seats. Acceleration a is calculated from the velocity V that the airplane reaches when taking off, divided by the time from start to take-off t: a(m/sec2)=^ V(m/sec)/^ t(sec) A question for you: What acceleration is necessary when an Airbus A380 needs 51 seconds to take off and thereby reaches a velocity of 87m/s at lift-off?
Four forces An aircraft is influenced by these four forces: Weight (downward), lift (upward) and the thrust (forward) created by the engine, which has to overcome the drag (air resistance) (rearward). On most Airbus models, upward angled winglets reduce the vortex at the wingtips and hence the drag (air resistance) and so help to save fuel. As soon as the plane touches down, the so-called air brakes are raised: They interrupt the airflow over the wings and reduce the lift, resulting in a better grip for the braking by the wheels. For take-off and landing, the wing profile can be changed by extending the slats (on the leading edge) and flaps; this increases the lift and enables the airplane to fly slower. Daniel Bernoulli and the principles of lift In his main work "Hydrodynamica", published in 1738, Daniel Bernoulli (1700 1782) described the principles of lift for the first time. This book almost wasn't published, because Bernoulli's father, a scientist himself, was so envious of his brilliant son, that he tried to steal and destroy the book. Fortunately, for the history of aviation, Daniel's father was not successful as a thief. 1 Lift and drag are affected by the shape of the wings. A strongly cambered wing profile (a curved upper surface and a straight or less curved lower surface) creates more lift, but creates more drag: The airplane is slower. A slender wing profile produces less lift, but also less drag: The airplane can fly faster. 2 When the airplane is taking off, the flaps are extended, which makes the wings' area larger and gives more camber: This gives the airplane enough lift at a slower speed to be able to take off. When the cruising altitude has been reached, the flaps are retracted; the wings have less camber and drag is reduced, this allows faster flying. 3 This lever enables the pilot to extend or retract the flaps, depending on the flight situation.
TAKE-OFF ENGINES From Propeller to Jet How airplanes are powered People have attempted to construct workable flying machines since the time of Leonardo da Vinci. Most of the early designs used flapping wings and tried to imitate birds. The gliding flight of birds was also observed, and some of the more successful early designs attempted to produce a device that would carry a person in gliding flight. Flying as a mode of transportation was then a totally utopian idea. With the invention of the internal combustion engine and with some of the aviation pioneers using engineering principles rather than "trial and error" methods, a fundamental problem of flying was being solved. The problem: How can an airplane gain enough speed so that the wings can produce enough lift for take-off (see page 30)? In 1903, after first experimenting with kites and gliders, the brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first successful powered flight at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina, USA. They had built their own piston engine, which drove two propellers through a bicycle chain. This design provided the necessary thrust for a catapult-assisted take-off and a short flight. Piston engines with a propeller are today used almost exclusively in small and private airplanes. It was the jet engine that made air travel possible over the distances and at the speed we are used to today. The first jet-powered airplane, the Heinkel He178, was produced in Germany in 1939 (see picture at left). Beginning in the 1950s, jet engines replaced piston engines on large airplanes and so revolutionised air travel. Jet engines take a relatively small mass of air and accelerate it by a large amount, whereas a propeller takes a large mass of air and accelerates it by a small amount. Jet-powered airplanes can fly much faster and higher than piston engine airplanes with propellers. Newton'sThird Law of Motion How does a propeller work? The blades of a propeller ("air screw") are nothing more than rotating wings. When they turn, the air flows faster over the curved upper side than over the flat under side. This creates a difference in pressure, and hence a force that pulls the airplane forward. Basically, it is the same principle that generates the lift of an airplane's wings (see page 30). For airplanes, the principle of action and reaction is very relevant. It can be used to explain the production of thrust by a jet engine and the generation of lift by a wing. "Foreveryaction,thereisanequalandopposite reaction. (Latin: actio est reactio)" Jet engines (and propellers) accelerate a mass of air rearwards. This generates a thrust force in the opposite direction, pulling the airplane forwards. A wing deflects air downwards thus pushing the airplane upwards.
Turboprops use a jet engine to drive the propeller and thereby combine the advantages of both. Just as in a jet engine, the air gets sucked in, compressed and burnt with kerosene in a combustion chamber. The turbine, however, is connected to a gearbox, which drives the propeller. For a turboprop, it is the propeller that produces the thrust, rather than the hot gases going out of the exhaust nozzle. Turboprop-powered airplanes are not as fast as jets, but a lot more efficient. That is why they are used for short and medium haul flights. Turbofan engines suck air in at the front, compress it and burn it in the combustion chamber. The hot exhaust gases flow through the turbine, which drives the compressor and the fan. Finally, the gas exits through the nozzle. The incoming air is captured by the engine inlet (1). The rotating compressor (2) progressively increases the pressure and temperature by forcing the air through several stages of rotating and stationary airfoil-shaped blades. The fan (3) is part of the compressor, but most of the air going through it is bypasses the engine core. The air accelerated by the fan (4) produces most of the thrust of a turbofan engine, resulting in better fuel consumption, higher thrust at low speeds and less noise. In the combustion chamber (5), the fuel (kerosene) gets mixed with the compressed air, ignited and burned. The hot exhaust gas is guided through the turbine (6), which drives the compressor and the fan. At the rear of the engine, the exhaust gas is further accelerated by passing through the nozzle (7). Airbus A380 with the Trent 900 engine made by Rolls-Royce The engine of the A380 Large commercial airliners usually come with a choice of engines. The customers (the airlines) can decide which engine they want installed when they purchase the airplane. The largest international engine manufacturers are General Electric (USA), Pratt & Whitney (USA), Rolls-Royce (UK) and SAFRAN (France). To develop a particularly quiet and environmentally friendly engine for the A380, General Electric and Pratt & Whitney joined forces to produce the "GP 7000", with MTU (Germany) also being a partner in the programme. As an alternative, Rolls-Royce offers the "Trent 900" engine. Both engine models make the A380 the most fuel-efficient and the quietest of the large airliners.
TAKE-OFF TAKE-OFF AND LANDING Into the Air and Back Down Again What happens at take-off and landing? Take-off and landing are the two phases of a flight when the pilots are busiest. When the airplane reaches its cruising altitude, it flies on autopilot (almost) on its own, and the pilots must then be prepared to intervene primarily when something out of the ordinary happens. However, getting the airplane into the air and safely back to the ground requires their flying skills. No surprise, therefore, that every airplane take-off is carefully planned. At least two hours before take-off, the captain and co-pilot study the weather conditions and go through the flight plan that has been prepared by a so-called "dispatcher". During this procedure, they calculate the amount of fuel needed on board the airplane not wanting to add more weight than necessary, but safely having sufficient fuel reserves should a diversion be necessary. Around one and a half hours before take-off, the entire crew, pilots and flight attendants, meet at a briefing, and afterwards each of them prepares their own work station. The pilots examine the airplane externally and check the systems in the cockpit. They then contact the tower controller, who gives permission to taxi to the runway and finally the clearance for take-off. For the take-off, the pilot must accelerate the airplane to a sufficiently high speed, so that enough lift is generated to allow the airplane to lift off. (see page 30). The landing at the end of the flight begins by leaving the cruising altitude (for commercial airliners this is generally between 10,000 and 12,000 metres). The airplane slows down and starts to descend. The pilots gradually deploy the wing flaps, so that sufficient lift is available while the speed is decreasing (see page 30). Shortly before landing, the landing gear is lowered. According to the weather, the pilot lands by sight or in poor visibility with the help of the Instrument Landing System (ILS). With its signals transmitted from a ground station at the airport, the ILS provides guidance to the runway designated for the landing. PAPI: Landing by sight The pilot can land by sight in good weather. At many runways he is supported by a visual landing system such as the Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI). This system consists of two rows of four lights each, on the left and right of the runway. The groups of lights are designed to appear either red or white, according to the angle from which they are seen. If the pilot is flying at the correct angle for landing, two lights in each row are white and two are red. If all the lights appear white, it is a sign for the pilot that he is too high; if they all appear red, then he is too low.
Landing The approach phase begins by leaving the cruising altitude (1), around 30 minutes before landing. When the airplane descends below 10,000ft (ft = feet; approx. 3 feet = 1 metre) (2), it is allowed to fly at a maximum speed of 250kts (kts = knots; 1 knot = approx. 1.8km per hour). The pilot reduces the speed further and deploys the wing flaps in stages, to increase the lift as the speed gets lower. At a distance of 20nm (nm = nautical mile; 1nm = approx. 1.8km) from touch-down, the landing gear is lowered, and the airplane is then ready to land (3). Around 8nm from touch-down (4), the pilot reports to the tower; for an instrument approach, the ILS provides two signals to guide the pilots to the runway, which they do not have to see at that time: The localizer signal (5) transmits information for the direction to the runway, while the second signal (6) (glideslope) gives the information about the airplane's decreasing altitude. The glideslope leads to the touchdown on the runway at an angle of three degrees. The outer marker beacon (7) serves as a signpost: it tells the pilot that he is exactly 8km away from touch-down. The inner marker beacon (8) tells the pilot that he is only 1km away from landing. When landing in bad weather, there is a so-called decision height (9), (the lowest is 200ft above ground), by which the pilot must see the runway, so that he may proceed with the landing. On touch-down (10) the pilot should momentarily hold the airplane just above the runway. He reduces the speed further until the wings begin to lose their lift. The airplane lands first on its main landing gear wheels, followed by the nose gear, after which the pilot immediately applies the brakes. At the same time, the pilot deploys the so-called "spoilers", so as to decrease lift, and he also switches the engines into reverse thrust. When the airplane has slowed down sufficiently, it leaves the runway (11) and taxis to the terminal. Take-off Before take-off, the pilot announces "ready for take-off" (12) and receives permission from the tower to taxi onto the runway. He engages the brakes and applies full thrust. He then releases the brakes and the airplane accelerates away. Up to the decision speed VI (13), take-off can be aborted. If everything is in order, the pilot accelerates further. When the so-called "rotation speed" Vr (14) is reached, the pilot lifts the nose it rotates upwards and the airplane lifts off. The landing gear is retracted and the airplane climbs at the "safe climb speed" V2 (15). This speed and others depend on factors such as the local air pressure and the temperature, for example. Finally, the airplane passes into "planned climb", which is as steep as possible due to noise control. At about this point, the autopilot is usually switched on. The wing flaps are retracted (16) and the airplane climbs further until it reaches cruising altitude. 14 12 13 The right speed for take-off An airplane like the Airbus A380 needs a speed of approximately 260km/h in order to be able to take off, depending on its weight, the prevailing temperature and air density. At this speed, the dynamic lifting force on the aircraft is equal to its weight. Since the size of the lifting force along with the speed of the airplane depends upon the surface of the wings and the camber of the wing, the landing flaps and slats on the leading edge are deployed on take-off (and landing). For reasons of safety, the speed at which the pilot rotates the nose of the airplane upwards is around 10% greater than the minimum speed, i.e. 280km/h. The deciding factor is the speed at which the air flows past the wings. Asarule,therefore,airplanestakeoffagainst the direction of the wind.
Flying like a Bird Flying through the air with a kite, a paraglider or a parachute read all about it on page 38. Flying without an Engine You can learn how gliders can fly without an engine on page 40. Total Privacy in the Air Private planes are available in all sizes. You can see the various types on page 42.
Flying at Low Altitudes Flying in every Direction Helicopters are extremely manoeuvrable machines that can fly in any direction. You can read about how they manage this on page 44. All-rounders of the Skies These machines can fly almost anywhere, and they can be employed for many different tasks. You can find out what modern helicopters are capable of on page 46. Highways in the Sky Will we all soon be flying around the cities in our own little airplanes, like in the movies? See for yourself on page 48.
LOW ALTITUDES HANG GLIDING, PARACHUTING AND PARAGLIDING Flying like a Bird Gliding through the air with parachutes, hang gliders and paragliders Watching the scenery from high above, like a bird: This has been man's dream since ancient times. The Chinese turned this into reality more than 2000 years ago, when their kites lifted soldiers into the air to spy on their enemies. In 1483, Leonardo da Vinci drew sketches of pyramid-shaped parachutes. On 22nd October 1797, the Frenchman André-Jacques Garnerin was the first person to jumped out of a balloon with a parachute. Then, on 1st March 1912, US Army Captain Albert Berry was the first person to parachute out of an airplane. The development of today's hang gliders and paragliders started with the ingenious invention of the NASA engineer Francis M. Rogallo. In the early 1950s, his research on parachutes gave him the idea of changing the round canopy of a parachute to a triangle-shaped airfoil made from inflatable fabric. After seeing photos of the semi-rigid Rogallo wing in 1961, the young American Barry Hill Palmer constructed and flew a hang glider made out of aluminium tubing, cellophane and duct tape and thereby became the first hang glider pilot. In 1973, the Californian Mike Harker made a spectacular flight from the summit of Germany's highest mountain, the Zugspitze. This was a real breakthrough for hang gliding, which started to make the sport known all over the world. Hang gliding and paragliding have since become popular hobbies; many flight schools offer introductory courses both for young and old in the art of flying like a bird. A modern hang glider has a sturdy frame made of aluminium tubes and battens giving shape to the sailcloth. The take-off is normally made from a mountain ridge free of any obstruction and by running into the wind. During the flight, the pilot lies suspended under the hang glider and manoeuvres it by shifting his weight and by moving the trapeze sideways to the right or left. The speed can be controlled by moving the trapeze backwards and forwards. The average air speed is about 40km/h. Due to thermal lift (see page 40) pilots have been able to fly distances of 700km! Sir George Cayley and the dandelion The development of the first practicable parachute goes back to Sir George Cayley (1773 1857), who is sometimes called "the father of aerodynamics". In 1829, he studied the dandelion seed and modelled his parachute design after it. He had noted the reason why the seed consistently fell in a steady way: its centre of gravity lies near the bottom and its canopy is curved upwards at the edge. Accordingly, Cayley's parachute had the shape of an inverted cone, which ensures that the parachute automatically returns to a stable position regardless of any gusts of wind. A Rogallo Wing was tested by NASA in 1964
Everything necessary for paragliding fits into a backpack. One normally takes off on a slightly down-sloping mountain side, where the pilot first starts walking forward to bring the paraglider up. Due to the head wind, the glider's canopy fills with air; it then begins to generate lift and soon carries the pilot into the air. Today's paragliders have elliptically shaped wings with an area of 20 to 30m2, whose cells are filled and stiffened by the oncoming air during the flight: It is effectively a huge, air-filled mattress under which the pilot sits comfortably and safely buckled in on a harness. The glider is steered with both hands via two steering lines. For instance, if the pilot pulls on the right steering line, the paraglider will fly to the right. A modern paraglider can fly 8km while descending only 1,000m. With the help of updrafts, it is not unusual for experienced pilots to fly for hours and to cover distances of over 100km. A parachute increases the drag and thereby slows the descent so that a person or object can safely land after falling from great heights down to the ground. The principle of a static line attached to the airplane was the invention of the German airship engineer Otto Heinecke, and is still used today. The static line allows for a safe jump as it positively pulls the rip cord and prevents the parachute from getting entangled in the aircraft. The first pilot to parachute to safety was the Frenchman Adolphe Pégoudam, who jumped from his Bleriot aircraft in 1913. On 16th August 1960, the American Joseph Kittinger jumped from a balloon with a special parachute from a height of 31,332m to land after 9.5 with minutes the highest parachute jump in history. Help from the sky How can people be helped in emergencies, when neither cars, nor airplanes or helicopters can reach them? Such situations call for paragliders and parachutes. Engineers at EADS developed a range of systems using these devices to bring help: With the navigation tool ParaFinder (1), it is possible for parachutists to jump from a height of 10,000 metres and be guided precisely to a landing at the point where the people in need of help are located. The ParaLander (2) system makes it possible for relief supplies to be steered automatically to a precise and soft landing. And with the so-called "Tentainer" (3), a cross between a tent and a container, light-weight but sturdy "housing" can be air dropped into a disaster area.
LOW ALTITUDES GLIDING Flying without an Engine How gliders can take to the air Aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal was the first successful glider pilot. When he made his attempts at flying from a hill near Berlin in 1891, he soon managed to fly higher than his take-off point. In other countries, brave men tried their hand at gliding as well, for example, the French-born American Octave Chanute. He used his engineering knowledge to analyse the work of earlier experimenters like Lilienthal and then designed and built his own gliders. These were piloted by A. Herring and W. Avery, because he was too old to fly himself. For some considerable time, it was thought that gliding was only possible in mountainous regions, because it seemed that only there the so-called updrafts make gliders climb. These updrafts exist where a wind blowing horizontally is diverted upwards by an obstacle such as a mountain. Such updrafts can lift gliders to twice the height of the mountain. Large birds, however, could also be observed to circle in the air for hours above lowlands without beating their wings. This is possible due to the weather phenomenon of "thermal updrafts" or commonly known as "thermals", which glider pilots learned to look for and use. Under certain circumstances, warm pockets of air collect at ground level and begin to rise they form updrafts, in which the glider pilots can circle and gain altitude. Since the invention of powered flight, gliding is now only pursued as a challenging hobby and a step into the world of flying after all, in many countries it is possible to obtain a glider pilot's licence at the age of sixteen. Many people are justifiably fascinated by the gliding flight and rightly so, as it uses the powers of nature efficiently. Circling inside a thermal column, the glider pilot uses the updraft to gain altitude. What causes thermals? The condition for a thermal to form is that warm air collects at ground level, for example over dark land masses that absorb heat from the sun. This warm air rises, and by doing so, produces an updraft. As the air climbs, it expands, the air pressure decreases and its temperature drops. Usually at some stage, the rising air reaches the same temperature as the surrounding air, and the upward movement ceases. A so-called "layering of air" is necessary to generate useful thermals for a glider flight. The temperature of the layers up high decreases very quickly, (as is often noticed when mountain climbing). The rising air always stays warmer than the surrounding layers of air. That way it can always climb higher, sometimes even by several thousands of metres. The rising warm air takes some of the surrounding air upwards; a thermal column is created, in which an updraft can prevail for a long time.
Cumulus clouds are frequently, but not always, a sign that thermal updrafts are present below. Modern gliders are equipped with a so-called variometer, an instrument that shows when the glider is moving up or down even when the movement is too small to be noticed by the pilot. Some records: Outstanding records for height and distance have been achieved by gliders. Here are just some of the records: Longestdistanceflown: 3,008.8km Klaus Ohlmann (Germany) on 22.1.2003 in 14.58h in the Andes. Once the pilot has climbed in the thermal column as high as possible or desired, he leaves the thermal and can then fly as far as the air will carry him. If he wants to climb again, he must find another thermal. Fastest speed Greatest height 247.49km/h 14,938m James M Payne (USA) on 3.3.1999 in California. (over 500km distance) Robert R Harris (USA) on 17.2.1986 in California. Instruments in the cockpit of a glider How does a glider take off? The following techniques are used: Winch launch (1): Launching the glider is accomplished by attaching a strong cable between the glider and a winch, which accelerates the glider to a speed of around 90 to 130km/h. Aerotow (2): The glider is pulled into the air by a powered airplane. Bungee launch: Small aircraft can be launched by using a rubber rope, similar to a catapult. Radio transmitter (1). Altimeter (2). The Variometer (3) shows whether the airplane is climbing or descending, often with an audible output. Compass (4). The Air Speed Indicator (5) measures and displays the speed. The E-Variometer (6) has the usual function of a vertical speed indicator, and also shows what the best speed is for the current situation. The Turn and Slip Indicator (7) shows the speed with which the aircraft changes its direction (important when flying in clouds). 2 with a (retractable) engine and propeller. There are also self-launching gliders, which are fitted
LOW ALTITUDES PRIVATE AIRPLANES Total Privacy in the Air The many faces of private airplanes When it comes to "private airplanes", most people think of small airplanes such as the well-known single-engine Cessnas, which seat between four and twelve people, depending on the model, and which are used for short private flights. In reality, however, the concept does not apply to a certain type of airplane, but to its use, as opposed to scheduled or charter flights. Private airplanes are used by individuals for their personal or business purposes. Which airplane they use is up to their own imagination and, of course, to their wallet. Almost every type of airplane, from the very small to the very large, can be used as a private airplane. A quite different class of airplanes are the so-called "business jets". These are normally small twin-engine jets, which are mostly used by companies but also wealthy individuals. The best-known types are the Bombardier Learjet, the Cessna Citation or the Dassault Falcon. And once you have arrived in the jet league, of course, there is hardly an upward limit. Even airplane types, that would otherwise be employed in scheduled service, can be used as private airplanes. Airbus for example, offers a variant of the A319 as the "Airbus Corporate Jetliner (ACJ)". And, in the broadest sense of private flying, there are also luxury charter airplanes available to the super-rich. A flight from Paris to Los Angeles may well cost 300,000 euros at a time, but, then again, you get a luxuriously furnished cabin with a sitting room, bedroom and an office above the clouds, as well as top-class gourmet meals to boot. Remos GX .......... Piston ........................ Engine type .... ................... 1 es ................ Number of engin ................... 2 ........................ Seats ............ /h ........ ......... 249 km d................. d ................ Maximum spee Ultra-light Dassault Falcon 7X The smallest airplanes are known as "ultralights". They have a maximum take-off weight of 450kg, or only 300kg for a single-seater. For those pilots who fly as a hobby, they are the ideal entry into powered flight, since they are quite affordably priced from 80,000 euros upwards, and the necessary pilot's licence is relatively easy to obtain. Airplanes, such as the Cessnas mentioned previously, represent the middle of the scale within the wide variety of private airplanes. A Private Pilot's Licence, which comes close to meeting the requirements of a professional qualification, is needed to fly these types. Airplanes like the Cessnas are often rdier flown by profesBomba t 45 sional pilots in Learje private service. Engine type Number of Socata TBM 850 .............. Je t ............... Seats ......... .. 3 ............... ............... .............. Maximum 11 speed ...... ............... .. Mach 0. engines ... ............... ............... Business Je ............... Cessna 1 Skyhaw 72 k Light aircraft Turboprop oprop type.............................. Engine type .............................. Turb 1 of engines ................................... Number .............................................. 6 ........ Seats Maximum speed ......................... 600 km/h ...... Jet ............ ............ ............ ......... 2 pe .. ............ Engine ty ............ ngines .. ......... 9 of e ............ Number ............ ............ 9 km/h ...... ....... 85 Seats .... ............ eed ...... m sp Maximu Busines s Jet Engine Numbe Seats .... Light a type .... ircraft Piston ines .... ............ ............ ............ ....... 1 ............ Maximu ............ m speed ............ ............ ... 4 ............ . 233 k m/h r of eng ............ ............ one e ngine ..........
Socata TB21 GT Beechcraft K 350 ingair DA42 Dia m Light aircraft one engine Engine type ...................................... Piston Number of engines ................................... 1 Seats ................................................... 45 speed......................... Maximum speed ......................... 352 km/h Diamond D-Jet es ............... ............... ........ Pisto Number of n engines ... ............... ............... Seats ......... s............. .. 2 ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............ 4 Maximum . speed ...... ............... .... 359 km /h Engine type Light airc raft two engin Turboprop .. Turboprop ........................ Engine type .... 2 .................... Light aircraft es ................ Number of engin ............. 11 ........................ Seats ................ /h ......... 578 km d ................ Maximum spee Cessna 4 Airbus A318 ACJ t .............. Je ............... ............... ........... 2 Engine type ...... ............... engines ... Number of ............. 5 ............... ... ............... /h Seats ......... .... 580 km ............... speed ...... Maximum Microjet Engine type Number of Light airc .... Jet Engine type ........................................ ........................... 2 Number of engines ........ Corporate Jetliner ........ Pisto n engines ... ............... ............... Seats ......... s............. .. 1 ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............ 4 Maximum . speed ...... ............... .... 435 km /h ............... raft one ............... engine Seats ............. Depends on confi 0.82 Maximum speed ....................... Mach guration Pioneer 300 Ce Citationssna Mustan g What you have to do to fly ultra-lights In many countries, it is possible to obtain a Sports Pilot's Licence as early as at the age of 17 and start training at 16. Generally depending on the country 60 hours of theory instruction in technical subjects such as meteorology, aviation law, navigation and emergency situations are required. On the practical side, 25 flying hours must be completed, five of these "solo", without an instructor; and a total of 40 take-offs and landings must be carried out during the training. For the licence to remain valid, one has to accumulate at least 18 flying hours per year and log 36 take-offs and landings. Ultra-light Engine ty Number Seats .... ............ Jet ............ ............ ... 2 ............ ............ Maximu ............ m speed ... 5 ............ ............ . 650 km of engin es ........ ............ pe ........ Microje ............ ............ Pisto Engine type ...................................... 1 of engines ................................... Number ............................................... 2 Seats ........ km/h Maximum speed ......................... 278
LOW ALTITUDES HELICOPTERS; TECHNOLOGY Flying in every Direction How helicopters are flown and steered Even as far back as the 15th century, people were speculating about a flying machine that wouldn't just fly in one direction, but backwards, forwards and sideways, and one that could also "hover" in the air. The first idea for a helicopter was sketched by Leonardo da Vinci back in 1475, but it wasn't until 1907 that the Frenchman Paul Cornu flew some kind of helicopter for 20 seconds. In 1924, the Spaniard de la Cierva managed to fly a distance of 12 kilometres with his "Autogiro". However, the first helicopter that could really be called by that name was the Focke Wulf FW61. On its maiden flight in 1936, it flew for a total of 16 minutes at a height of 20 metres. What is unique about a helicopter is its rotor: it is in a sense the wings and the propulsion rolled into one. It provides both the lift (just like the wings of a "normal" airplane) and the thrust (like the propeller of an airplane). Steering a helicopter To fly a helicopter, the pilot must use all three steering controls at the same time: Cyclic (1): With this control stick in his right hand, the pilot controls the tilt angle of the swash plate and so determines in what direction the helicopter flies. The pilot must never let go of the Cyclic. Collective (also known as "Pitch") (2): With this lever in his left hand, the pilot determines whether the helicopter climbs or descends. Pedals (3): The pilot steers the tail rotor with the foot pedals, and with these he can turn the helicopter. The helicopter has long established itself as an important part of modern air transport. Over short distances, in densely populated areas and in difficult terrains such as mountains, it is the ideal flying craft because of its flexibility and agility. To fly a helicopter is a fine art and its pilot has a more difficult task to master than the captain of a modern airliner. A fixed-wing airplane, once it has gained enough lift, effectively flies itself due to its inherent aerodynamic stability; a helicopter, on the other hand, has to be actively steered by its pilot at all times. An aviation expert once compared flying a helicopter to balancing a marble on a plank of wood. Leonardo da Vinci had the first idea for a helicopter In 1907 Paul Cornu flew with this flying machine for a total of 20s at a height of 30cm De la Cierva flew 12km with his "Autogiro" The Focke Wulf Fw61 (1936) was the first fully viable helicopter
The rotor blades produce lift like the wings of a fixed-wing airplane and, at the same time, thrust like a propeller. The Eurocopter EC 135 is one of the most commonly used helicopters in Europe, and is employed, for example, by the police and rescue services. The tail rotor stabilises the helicopter by producing thrust in a sideways direction. Without it, the helicopter would turn about its vertical axis in the opposite direction of the rotor. The swash plate The most important component for the steering of a helicopter is the swash plate, which is below the rotor head. The pitch angle of the rotor blades can be changed by the swash plate simultaneously (with the collective stick). Doing this increases or decreases the lift that the rotor generates, allowing the helicopter to gain or lose altitude. The swash plate also allows the pitch of the blades to be changed independently (with the cyclic stick) depending on where they are in the rotation. The result is that the individual rotor blades have more lift on one side of the helicopter and less on the opposite side. This allows the helicopter to move in any direction. How does a helicopter fly? Every rotor blade is shaped in principle like the wing of an aircraft: The upper surface is curved and the air is forced to flow faster over the rotor blade than under it, thereby causing a lower pressure on the upper surface. The pressure difference results in a force, the lift, which pulls the helicopter upwards. The direction that the helicopter flies is determined by changing the pitch angle of the blades individually as they revolve. When the cyclic control stick is pushed forward, the swash plate is tilted forward as well. The pitch angle of the blades passing through the rear part of the rotation is increased. The result: The direction of the lift is changed to have a forward component. The helicopter flies forwards. When the cyclic is pulled backward, the swash plate is tilted backward. The helicopter flies backwards. When the cyclic is pushed to the right or left, the swash plate is tilted sideways to the right or left, and the pitch angle of the revolving rotor blades is changed accordingly. The helicopter is able to fly sideways.
LOW ALTITUDES HELICOPTERS IN THE FIELD All-rounders of the Skies Helicopter operations Airplanes are there to transport people and freight quickly, and if necessary, over long distances. Helicopters are there for all other kinds of missions. The multi-faceted use of helicopters can be reduced to this simple formula: They can reach places where neither cars, trains nor any other type of vehicle can go. Therefore, helicopters are used to transport loads and people to places where airplanes can't land. Helicopters help to save lives. They can be employed, for example, to rescue distressed hikers in the mountains, to transport injured persons from the scene of an accident to a hospital, or to ferry organs to where they are needed for a transplant. Helicopters are also used to get an overview of a situation by the police, who monitor state visits from the air, or by automobile clubs, who wish to get a picture of the current traffic situation. Helicopters are used to detect natural resources in remote regions, to put out forest fires and to provide people in disaster areas with emergency relief. Safety even in difficult terrain The way a helicopter is built depends on the areas in which it is to be employed. The Eurocopter EC 130/135 has been designed for transport and rescue operations in difficult terrain. In mountains or forests, where there is little space to land, the helicopter's tail rotor can become a safety hazard: If it touches a tree or boulder the helicopter is in serious danger. For this reason, the tail rotor of the EC 130 is encased. Protected in this way, a helicopter can undertake difficult operations in remote areas. What is more, this design means that the helicopter produces far less noise than if the tail rotor was not encased. The design of helicopters is as varied as their fields of operation; it is determined by the type of task it is expected to carry out. Is a two-seater cabin sufficient or will a number of people have to be transported? What kind of loads will the helicopter be expected to carry and will it need two engines? How should the helicopter be built to suit rescue operations in rugged mountain regions, and how much room will be needed for the emergency equipment in the cabin? These are the questions faced by helicopter designers on a daily basis. They will never be left without a challenge, as new deployment possibilities are constantly being found. Electronic equipment helps the pilot Steady hand needed It is quite complicated to fly a helicopter. To get a feeling of how demanding it is to be a helicopter pilot, you can try the following experiment: Put a marble on a book, then walk through your home with the book in both hands. Try going faster, then slower, then forwards, then backwards, make slow and fast turns. Be careful that the marble doesn't fall off pretend that the helicopter might crash if it does! Flying a helicopter is one of the most difficult jobs a pilot can choose (see page 44), and emergency operations are particularly challenging. The helicopter has to be kept in the air whilst navigating difficult terrain, like mountains or forests. In addition, according to statistics, around 70 percent of all emergency response operations have to be carried out at night or during poor weather conditions. Modern electronic equipment helps the pilot on these difficult missions. The Eurocopter laser-radar system HELLAS increases flight safety by detecting obstacles in conditions of poor visibility and by showing them clearly marked on a display in the cockpit.
Helicopters help fight fires even in remote regions, which fire engines could never reach. In impassable regions, such as high mountain ranges, injured people can only be rescued by helicopter. One of the most important helicopter operations is flying injured people swiftly to a hospital. Since helicopters have been used by emergency services and automobile clubs, such as the ADAC or the ACF, the number of fatalities on the roads has been substantially reduced. Protecting borders, particularly coastlines, is an important job for helicopters.
LOW ALTITUDES FUTURE SCENARIOS FOR LOCAL TRANSPORT Highways in the Sky Flying and the future of local transport Since the 1950s, the dream of flying cars has fuelled the imagination of Hollywood. In movies such as "Blade Runner", "The Fifth Element" and "Star Wars", cities mushroom to gigantic mega centres, so that flying is the only way possible to escape traffic gridlock. But will science fiction soon become reality? Until a few years ago, the US aerospace agency NASA had a project named Personal Air Vehicle (PAV). The PAV was to be able to take off and land from small parking lots in inner cities and be equipped with technology that was to make such a flying car affordable. The PAV was also to be so safe that lengthy pilot training would not be necessary. Thanks to a new satellite navigation system, the mini airplanes would automatically communicate and avoid collisions, making the Highways in the Sky much safer than today's motorways. In the meantime, however, this NASA project has fallen victim to budget cuts. Fusion Man the human rocket Yves Rossy, also known as Jet Man or Fusion Man, is a Swiss pilot, inventor and adventurer. He succeeded step by step in constructing a jet-powered flying device: his JetWing. Its rigid, folding wing is made from carbon fibre and fibreglass and is strapped to the pilot's back. It has a span of approximately three metres and four small jet engines attached to its underside. Take off here simply means dropping out of an airplane, and the JetWing is steered by moving the body, which is an integral component of the craft. A slight movement of the arm and the JetWing makes a turn. Rossy uses a parachute for landing. In 2004, Rossy was the first man to successfully fly with the JetWing strapped to his back. Four years later, on 26th September 2008, he took off from an airplane at a height of 2,300m above Calais. Flying at an average speed of 200km/h, he crossed the 35km wide Channel in thirteen minutes and landed by parachute near Dover. Rossy had added another chapter to aviation history: 99 years after the first Channel crossing flight by aviation pioneer Louis Blériot, he had flown the same route, but this time wearing wings "a little bit like a bird", Rossy said afterwards. Others are moving away from thinking about individual transportation and are now looking at how flying craft could succeed busses and trams. For example, the think tank Bauhaus Luftfahrt is developing the concept of the "Airtrain", which could take passengers and goods from rail and road into the air, even over short distances. PAL V According to observers, a project from the Netherlands stands an excellent chance of becoming reality: the PAL-V (Personal Air/Land Vehicle) conceived by the engineer John Bakker. The PAL-V will be a two-seated, three-wheeled vehicle with a small passenger cabin and the rotor of a gyrocopter. With just a few manipulations, the driver becomes a pilot. Two large rotor blades are unfolded and the PAL-V takes off into the air. It features an eco-friendly car engine and is fuelled by either petrol or diesel, like a normal car, while bio-diesel or bio-ethanol are possible as well. It can reach speeds of up to 200km/h on a motorway as well as in the air. From 2011, PAL-V is to be initially built as a prototype within an EU-project, and it will cost around 100,000 euros.
The "Airtrain" concept, developed by Bauhaus Luftfahrt, would be a vertical take-off aircraft, similar to a helicopter, which can lift wagons with passengers or goods off a train, transport them over a short distance by air and put them down in another place either onto rails, or onto a ship or a road vehicle. In this manner, passengers could travel by various means of transportation without actually having to leave their seats. The British firm Avcen has developed the concept of the Jetpod a kind of flying taxi for up to five passengers. One drawback: The Jetpod needs a runway 150 metres long.
High-Tech in the Air Superficially, modern aircraft look pretty much the same as they did twenty years ago. However, they are packed with innovative technology. For example? You can find out on page 52. Jobs in the Air Of course, it is not only the pilots who work on an airliner; find out what the cabin crew's duties and responsibilities are on page 54. It's not always Clear Weather conditions still have a decisive influence on every flight. See on page 56 how modern aviation confronts difficult weather Faster than You can Hear What happens exactly when a plane breaks the sound barrier? We tell you on page 58.
Flying at High Altitudes Birth of an Airbus On page 60 you can find out how an aircraft is built and what the engineers have to take into consideration. An Airbus from many Countries The A380 is the product of collaboration between several countries, but the cooperation does not stop there. Find out how the complicated processes work on page 62. Flying into the Future The engineers are already working on the designs of tomorrow's airplanes. We show you what they might look like on page 64.
HIGH ALTITUDES MODERN COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT High Tech in the Air Innovations make flying safer and more comfortable For us, flying today is hardly anything special. Almost everyone in Europe has flown at least once, to go on vacation, to visit relatives or on business. However, flying has kept much of its fascination from the pioneering days: the speed at which you get to go from one place to another, and the height, from which you can look down on the Earth. Nowadays, modern commercial aircraft have to fulfil quite a number of expectations: They have to function as a means of mass transportation, offer sufficient comfort, impart a feeling of safety to the passengers, be environmentally friendly and at the same time be economical, so that tickets can be sold at affordable prices. Scientists and aeronautical engineers, who develop new types of airplanes or update older ones with innovative technology, are battling on many fronts. They develop new materials for aircraft structures, which are more durable and also lighter and so increase safety as well as making the airplane more economical, because the maintenance is less costly and the relationship between weight and performance is better. They try out new cabin designs and develop technologies to make the airplane fly smoother in turbulence, all to make the journey more comfortable for passengers. With new cockpit technologies, they help the pilots with their routine tasks so that they can concentrate even more on safety aspects. And they work on technologies to reduce fuel consumption and noise emissions, for the benefit of the environment and the people living near airports. These are just a few examples of what airplane designers are working on today. They have to master many challenges, because air traffic continues to increase and passenger airplanes are becoming an ever more important form of transport in a globalised world. Mini-TEDs: Small flaps, big impact Mini-TEDs (TEDs = Trailing Edge Devices) are narrow flaps, which are installed at the trailing edge of normal landing flaps. They can provide additional lift, since they strongly deflect the airflow downwards under the wing. This means that airplanes can take off sooner and land with a steeper approach angle, thereby exposing a smaller area at the airport to noise. Mini-TEDs can also move in and out quickly during the flight to reduce the effects of turbulence. In test flights on an Airbus A340 this innovative technology was tried out with very promising results. Perhaps miniTEDs will very soon become standard equipment on Airbus planes. Fly-by-Wire: Steering with the help of computers When the pilots of a conventional airplane want to deploy the wing flaps or change the elevator setting, they move a lever. This action is then transmitted to the moving parts by means of wires and hydraulics; consequently, there are many mechanical parts, which necessitate a lot of maintenance and are prone to malfunctions. Airbus passenger airplanes use a more modern technology: The pilots' commands are transmitted to the moving parts via computer and electrical circuits. Together with this so-called "Fly-By-Wire" technology, the conventional control yoke has been replaced by a "Side-stick", a type of joystick, by which the pilots operate the flight controls.
Research for comfort Before the cabin of the A380 was designed, researchers carried out a survey to find out what expectations passengers have regarding cabin comfort. In addition, full size mock-ups of the cabin were set up in eight cities on three continents, and 1,200 frequent flyers from various cultures and nationalities were gathered to give their opinions. In this way, the final design of the A380 cabin has been adjusted to ideally meet the passengers' requirements. Airplanes made from synthetic materials Airplanes are traditionally made from metal (mainly aluminium alloys), however, the so-called "composites" are increasingly being used in the aerospace industry. These are mostly carbon fibre-composites, consisting of about 60% carbon fibre fabric and 40% resin, but there are also numerous other types of composite materials. In an airplane's structure, they are mainly employed for building the tail sections, however, more and more fuselage and wing parts are also being built from these materials. Around 30% of the structure of an A380 is made from composites. Their share will increase to more than 50% on the new A350. New composite materials have many advantages over metal: The relationship between strength and weight is much better, and some otherwise complex components can be moulded, so that they do not have to be assembled from many small parts. Composites are more resistant to material fatigue, and they do not corrode. In all, modern composite materials not only contribute to more safety, they are more economical in operation, as they need less maintenance work.
HIGH ALTITUDES WORKING IN THE AIR Jobs in the Air Not only pilots work in airplanes Today it's Singapore, tomorrow it's New York, the whole world appears to be there for the taking! Hardly any other job offers the prospect of so much travel as it does for a pilot and a flight attendant working for an airline. While most people believe they know what a pilot does (after all, he flies the airplane), the work of the flight attendants sometimes called stewardesses or stewards is greatly underestimated. Those who start this career just to travel the world, however, will very soon have to face reality. The job is extremely demanding, both physically and mentally, and it includes a lot more duties than being a wellpaid waitress in the sky. Not surprisingly, the drop-out rate of flight attendant trainees is relatively high. The main responsibility of the flight attendants the proportion of females in this job is approximately 70% is the passengers' safety, in addition to ensuring their comfort during the flight. Understandably, the flight attendants also attend the crew briefing before takeoff, when the captain informs them about the details of the forthcoming flight. They are therefore not only able to give information about safety procedures and what to do in an emergency, they can also answer any question concerning the flight. Flight attendants do of course take care of the physical well-being of the passengers during the flight, but their true capabilities only come into play when there is a problem: for example, when a passenger suffers from fear of flying; or when someone misbehaves; when a passenger suddenly takes ill; or when a safety problem occurs during the flight. Flight attendants are trained to deal with all such situations; they know how to react with psychological empathy and technical knowledge. Intelligence, discipline, the ability to communicate and to work as part of a team, in addition to having a good physical condition, are therefore important prerequisites for this job. If a passenger becomes mentally or physically ill, the flight attendants can administer first aid. Flight attendants are trained to react in a psychologically empathetic way to the requests and questions of passengers. The Purser: In charge of the cabin The concept of a purser originated in merchant shipping where it refers to the person in charge of payments and catering. The purser on an airplane is the most senior flight attendant in the cabin crew. He or she is responsible for implementing the airline's interests in terms of safety and customer service and, alongside the captain, has the responsibility to carry out and coordinate the emergency procedures for the passengers, as laid down in the company handbook. Training to be a purser is challenging; it encompasses the learning of technical and medical knowledge, the training of how to competently react in emergencies as well as lessons in leadership and management by motivation.
Who does what in the cockpit? Today, unlike years ago, piloting is teamwork, even though the captain always remains in charge of a commercial airliner and has the ultimate authority. He or she is responsible for the safety of the airplane and its occupants. However like any human being the captain is not infallible. The other member of the cockpit crew, the first officer, also known as the co-pilot, is trained to monitor, support and advise the captain in his decisions. Who will be taking the role of "pilot in command" is agreed between the captain and the first officer prior to every flight. The first officer is, in fact, not a trainee in the cockpit, but a crew member who has already had extensive training for his job as a pilot. In an emergency, the flight attendants know how to quickly bring the passengers to safety. What flight attendants need to know Once a year, every flight attendant has to take an exam; with a theoretical part to test their knowledge and a practical part to check whether they know what to do in any given situation. In these tests, crisis situations are simulated, such as unruly passengers or technical defects. It is important that the flight attendants instinctively know which commands to give and what to do. This is very important in serious situations. It should be noted: When passengers have been evacuated quickly and safely from the airplane after an emergency landing, it is the cabin crew who has to be given credit. The annual exam always corresponds to the types of airplane the flight attendant is working on. Like the pilots, flight attendants are only licensed for the types (three at most), for which they have been trained. In an emergency, they have to be able to find each and every switch and door handle in their sleep. Before every flight, the purser (he or she oversees the cabin crew) asks questions such as "What do you do if there is smoke coming out of the engine?" or "What do you have to do when you hear the following command ... ?". If a flight attendant fails to answer these questions correctly on several occasions, he or she can be suspended from duty.
HIGH ALTITUDES WEATHER / ATMOSPHERE / TURBULENCE It's not always Clear How the weather and atmosphere affect flying Weather still has a great influence on flying. Since the pioneering days of aviation, technical developments have, of course, done much to ensure that airplanes today can cope with many bad weather conditions. Still, when we are passengers experiencing turbulence, we have to realise yet again that the airplane is exposed to the conditions in the atmosphere, like a ship is exposed to those at sea. The word "weather" identifies the prevailing conditions of the atmosphere and its changes at a specific time, in a specific place, and is a momentary combination of temperature, precipitation, clouds, wind and air pressure. Weather takes place exclusively in the troposphere, the lowest and cloudiest layer of the atmosphere. In the tropics, the troposphere can stretch up to an altitude of 16km, in temperate zones such as Europe, it reaches an altitude of approximately 12km. Nowadays, weather has the greatest influence on flights during the take-off and landing phases. Wind shear (strong horizontal or vertical changes in the wind direction) or reduced visibility due to thick fog or heavy snowfall, can make take-off and landing difficult. Even cruising flight can be affected by the weather. Flying through a weather front with strong winds and lightning is still very dangerous even today and should be avoided. An important reason why modern aircraft fly at altitudes of around 10,000 metres is so that they fly above the weather. Getting a weather forecast that is as accurate as possible continues to be an essential part of good flight planning especially so for small airplanes, which cannot avoid weather phenomena by flying above them. Modern technology ensures that flights of large passenger airplanes very rarely have to be cancelled due to bad weather (e.g. due to thick fog at the airport). Howistheatmosphere made up? The atmosphere, which surrounds the Earth, is made up of various layers. The Troposphere (1) starts at the Earth 's surface. It is the air in which we live and breathe. Above it lies the Stratosphere (2), containing the ozone layer, which absorbs part of the sun's rays. In the Mesosphere (3), energy is emitt ed into space. The air cools down quick ly here. In the Thermosphere (4), the air is very thin, but there are still a lot of molecules prese nt, for example, to light up the tail of a mete or (shooting star). The Exosphere (5) is already so far from the Earth's gravitational field that ionise d molecules can escape from here into space. 80km 3 2 1 50km 10km It is interesting that the air temperatu re up to an altitude of around 10 kilom etres decreases to -50 degrees, then up to an altitude of 50 kilometres, it increases again to 0 degrees. Above this altitude, the temperature then falls to -100 degrees, and climbs once again above an altitude of 100 kilometres. The reason for this is the isolation properties of the various layer s of air and of course the intensity of the sun's rays.
Example of a weather report Hamburg Finkenwerder (EDHI), on 25th at 15:00 UTC: For the 25th, from 16:00 to 19:00 UTC, wind from 330° (NNW) at 6kts, visibility 10km, more isolated clouds at 2,000ft, isolated at 4,500ft, intermittent from 16:00 to 19:00 UTC: Rain showers, cloud isolated thunderclouds at 1,500ft, probability 40% intermittent from 16:00 to 18:00 UTC: Wind from 240° at 20kts with gusts at 35kts, vision 3km, heavy thunderstorm with rain and hail, clouds and scattered thunderclouds at 1,200ft. Air pockets and wake turbulence When passengers are jolted about on a flight, some people refer to "air pockets". In reality, of course, there are no such things as pockets in the air: It is so-called "turbulence" that is making the airplane move about. This is caused either by vertical air currents due to temperature conditions, or by vortices from airplanes flying ahead. Turbulence is often experienced when flying near to cumulus clouds, which originate from strong updrafts of warm air, while cold air masses are sinking on the outside of the clouds. Wake turbulence is invisible in the air. It is the result of counter-rotating vortices from the tip of the wings, which trail behind every airplane. Their intensity depends on the weight of the airplane, and their lifespan is influenced by the wind and the atmosphere. Especially large jets with immense vortices can be a danger to other airplanes. An airplane encountering wake turbulence can get out of control and even crash. Other airplanes therefore have to the keep a sufficient distance from the giants of the sky during take-off and landing so that they are not affected by wake turbulence. Why are airplanes de-iced in winter? In the winter, when an airplane has been standing at an airport during snowfall and freezing conditions, the wings and tail accumulate a layer of ice. During the flight, the high speed of the airflow over the wings and the tail prevents the build-up of ice, while particularly susceptible parts, such as the leading edges of the wings and the tail are heated. Ice has a considerable effect on the flying capabilities: The airplane gains weight, drag increases and lift is reduced. An airplane carrying ice would have to have a higher speed in order to take off, but it would actually be slower. Ice build-up can also impair the proper functioning of the flight control surfaces on the wings (ailerons) and the tail (elevator and rudder). Snow and ice are therefore carefully removed before the flight with a mixture of heated water and glycol. According to the size of the airplane, a de-icing consumes between 300 litres (for an A320) up to around 6,000 litres of deicing fluid for a wide-bodied aircraft (for an A340). The de-icing procedure takes ten to fifteen minutes, depending on the type and thickness of the ice and the size of the airplane.
HIGH ALTITUDES SUPERSONIC FLIGHTS Faster than You can Hear When airplanes break the sound barrier When the airplane accelerated in a dive, something strange happened: At a certain speed the pilot would feel as though it was pushing against a wall. Strong vibrations shook the airplane and it was extremely difficult to keep it under control. This was a disturbing encounter experienced by fighter pilots during the Second World War when they reached a very high speed in a dive attack. Scientists could soon explain the phenomenon: When an airplane passes through the air, it creates pressure waves (= sound waves), similar to the bow waves created by a boat. The pressure waves expand at the speed of sound, and as the speed of the airplane increases towards this speed, the waves are compressed, because they cannot "get out of the way" of each other: The so-called sound barrier is reached. For some years it was thought that the sound barrier could not be broken. This was not a real problem then, because the piston engines and propellers of that time could not take the airplanes near the speed of sound; it could only be approached in a high-speed dive. It took until 14th October 1947 for man to fly faster than the speed of sound for the first time. It was the American test pilot Charles "Chuck" Yeager, who reached the speed of 1,126km/h in his Bell X-1 rocket plane. From Concorde to the hypersonic airplane The legendary Concorde was the only supersonic passenger airplane used in regular service from 1976 until 2000. The Concorde achieved a speed of Mach 2.23, cutting the flight time between Paris and New York to just around 3 hours. Engineers and scientists are still working on the idea of a supersonic or even hypersonic (Mach 5 or higher) passenger airplane. The supersonic A2 would have no windows and be powered by hydrogen. If that project is turned into reality, possibly in 25 years time, we could go on a day trip to Australia, because the flight time in an A2 from Brussels to Australia would be just 4 hours and 40 minutes. This speed was high enough to break the sound barrier at the altitude of 13,106 metres, where Yeager flew on that day. The speed of sound depends on the altitude and the air temperature: At sea level, sound waves expand at a speed of 1,220km/h. The higher you go, where the air is thinner and colder, the lower the speed of sound becomes: At an altitude of 11km at -57º C, it is a mere 1,050km/h. How fast an airplane flies in relation to the speed of sound is indicated by the "Mach number", named after the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach (1838 1916). Accordingly, "Mach 2" means: twice the speed of sound. Modern fighter jets such as the Eurofighter Typhoon reach the speed of Mach 2 at higher altitudes and Mach 1.2 close to the ground. Chuck Yeager was the first person to break the sound barrier in the Bell X-1 I never knew whether a flight would be my last. You so often risked breaking your neck flying experimental aircraft, I was constantly aware that no test flight was ever simply routine. On 14th October 1947, I hoped my scheduled flight with the X-1 would be no more than that. The day before I was hurt in a horse riding incident and really didn't feel like writing history. But then, when I sat in the X-1 at the speed of Mach 0.92 and when I ignited the third chamber of the rocket engine, only a few seconds later I saw that I had passed Mach 1. It seemed to be easy then, but I knew it had been hard to reach supersonic speed, for me personally, but above all for the engineers, who had to build an airplane that could bear the extreme aerodynamic stress to approach supersonic speed. I really owe them the honour of becoming the first man to break the sound barrier. I hope we'll have such great engineers in the future, too.
The Eurofighter Typhoon is one of the most sophisticated fighter jets in the world. It was developed by the aerospace industries in the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain. The first prototype took off in 1994, and it has been in service since 2006. In our photo, the Eurofighter flies near the speed of sound, and you can clearly see the so-called "vapour cone". This phenomenon only occurs in certain weather conditions and only for short moments. The sudden pressure drop across the normally invisible shock wave causes the moisture in the air to condense into a visible cloud. The propagation of shock waves When an airplane flies at supersonic speeds, the resulting shock waves have the shape of a cone. The shape of the cone depends on the speed of the airplane: the faster it flies, the sharper the tip of the cone. That angle can be calculated as follows: v: Speed of the airplane Sound barrier Subsonic (1) When the airplane is travelling slower than the speed of sound, the pressure waves (= sound waves) it creates can propagate ahead of the airplane. Mach 1 (2) When the airplane reaches the speed of sound (Mach 1), then it is travelling as fast as the pressure waves, which develop into a shockwave in front of the airplane. Above the speed of sound (3) When the airplane exceeds the speed of sound (faster than Mach 1), it overtakes its own pressure waves.t They become compressed together into a cone-shaped "shock wave", which travels with the airplane. It causes the familiar "sonic boom" where it passes an observer on the ground. c: Speed of sound v> c e.g. e.g. v = c => a = sin = sin = ° v = c => a = sin = sin , = °
HIGH ALTITUDES AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION Birth of an Airbus How modern passenger jets are built As you can probably imagine, building a modern airplane is a very complicated technical challenge. Millions of parts and numerous systems with various functions have to be assembled before an airplane can take to the sky. But before the plane can be built, it has to be developed by the engineers. Thousands of people from many aviation technology domains have to coordinate their efforts: For example, the aerodynamics experts have to design the wings, fuselage and tail unit so that the plane can fly as fast and as far as expected, while consuming as little fuel as possible. Structural engineers are responsible for making the airplane sturdy so that it is capable of withstanding a hard landing. The so-called avionics experts are responsible for the airplane's electronics. The development of a new passenger jet usually takes around ten years, from the initial concept study to the presentation of the certificate of airworthiness, which is awarded only after an extensive flight-test programme. The actual building of the airplanes takes a much shorter time. From the first aluminium sheet that is cut into shape to the official delivery (to the airline), the building of the largest Airbus model in series production takes a little longer than one year. An A380, for example, is comprised of four million parts; 10,000 bolts hold the three main sections of the fuselage together and another 4,000 are used to hold each wing in place. Every A380 exterior is coated with approximately 650kg of paint. The people who build the aircraft are highly trained technicians and engineers. They have to work extremely accurately the future safety of the passengers depends on every rivet, every screw and every centimeter of cable. This is the reason why the quality of every single step of the assembly process is checked by specially trained experts. A large passenger plane is built in many large and small steps, which also vary in detail according to the type of airplane. Only the most important steps are outlined in this chapter. When the airplane is finished and officially "handed over" to the customer, everyone involved offers the traditional greeting "Many happy landings". 1) The building of an airplane starts with the airframe structure. The cockpit, cabin and tail sections, which together will form the airplane's fuselage, are formed from large sheets of aluminium and strengthened with frames and stiffeners ("stringers"). This process requires thousands of fasteners and small or large sheet metal parts. Nowadays, more and more structural elements are being built from carbon-fibre-strengthened composites. They are lighter, maintenance friendly and corrosion proof. 2) Numerous cables, hydraulic pipes, ventilation ducts, as well as windows and doors are fitted into the fuselage sections during the component assembly stage. Large items, such as the galleys or toilets, have to be built into the individual fuselage sections before these are joined together, since they would simply not fit through the doors later on. 3) The next step is to attach the wings, which have been built concurrently. The technicians manage to exceed their own high standards at this stage. Everything must sit absolutely perfectly so that the airplane will retain its exact shape and symmetry. Every fitter must sign his or her name on a document for every step accomplished. Even more than thirty years later it will still be possible to trace exactly who was responsible for any particular rivet. 4) The horizontal and vertical tailplanes are attached to the rear fuselage. They are there to maintain the aerodynamic stability of the airplane and are fitted with the horizontal and vertical rudders. Connected to the pilots' controls, they are used to manoeuvre the airplane in the air.
Jacques Rosay, Airbus Chief Test Pilot The Airbus Chief Test Pilot has a variety of tasks to accomplish. The main one is to ensure the safety of the flights. For this purpose, he has to make sure that the test and acceptance flights are properly crewed, and that the test pilots are thoroughly prepared for each particular flight. The test pilots are not only responsible for flying the aircraft during test and acceptance flights, they also bring their operational expertise to the design office, where they help to define the new aircraft. When you have to perform the first flight of a new aircraft type, your main concern is to be as technically proficient as possible. This means that you have done your utmost to familiarise yourself with the aircraft, and that you have prepared the flight as well as possible essentially, by spending hundreds of hours in the development simulators. This requires lengthy preparations and a huge amount of work. It can take months, and even years, before the flight test stage is reached. Finally, during the maiden flight itself, an atmosphere of hard work and the crew's intensive preoccupation with technical matters often completely hides the emotional aspects of the event. 5) The passenger cabin and cockpit are fitted with all the necessary technical systems. To check the functions of the on-board systems, the airplane has to be supplied with electricity. This can only take place after all the systems components have been installed. 6) The Airbus network is a European cooperation. The individual components, which are built and pre-equipped at various sites across the continent, are all fitted together on the final assembly line. This line is comprised of various stations, which are equipped with the necessary jigs and tools. During the final assembly stage, everything that has not yet been fitted is built into the aircraft, including the engines and the landing gear... Here too on the final assembly line, the quality of every step is meticulously checked. 7) When final assembly is completed, the airplane is wheeled out of the hangar and is fuelled for the first time. Then it is time to start the engines. The airplane is first moved slowly (low-speed taxi), and speed is gradually increased until it almost reaches take-off speed (high-speed taxi). The engines are inspected once again after these tests and, when everyone is satisfied with the results, the airplane is subsequently granted take-off permission. Due to safety regulations, the only people allowed on board during this so-called maiden flight are the pilots and the flight-test engineers. 8) After the successful completion of the first flight, the airplane is sprayed with the customer airline's livery. This is a highly complicated process; it takes two weeks, for example, to spray-paint an A380. The airplane is finally finished when the paint is dry.
HIGH ALTITUDES EUROPEAN COLLABORATION An Airbus from many Countries The Airbus A380, like all Airbus models, is the result of a European collaboration Airbus is a European aircraft manufacturer, and all Airbus models are built in a European collaboration, mainly at sites in France, Germany, Spain and Great Britain. The A380 in particular, the largest passenger airplane in the world, is the result of a gigantic international high-tech puzzle. The components come from many parts of the world, naturally from Europe, but also from the United States, Russia, Korea, Japan and Australia. Of course, these parts must still all fit together as well as if they had been built in the same location. This puzzle of parts is then assembled to larger components in Europe, but even here, this is done in several locations. For example, the fuselage shells and the front and rear sections are made in Germany, the centre section and cockpit structure is made in France, the main wing parts in Great Britain and the tail section and empennage in Spain. For joint airplane manufacturing to function, excellent communication and exact agreements are absolutely essential, since, for safety reasons, all parts must fit precisely to within fractions of a millimetre. In preparation for production, all manufacturing jigs and tooling have to be finely adjusted for the components to precisely match up. Finally, the individual components for the A380 are assembled at the Airbus facility in Toulouse in Southern France. To this end, huge parts, such as the wings or fuselage sections have to be transported across half of Europe, by road, sea or by air via the "Beluga", the Airbus Super Transporter. Since all components from the various locations have already been completed as far as possible, final assembly in Toulouse does not take a long time: After the ramp-up to full series production, one A380 will leave this hall every week. The finished A380 then makes its delivery flight to the customer from Toulouse, representing an airplane that is made from parts from all over the world, with know-how and manpower from four European countries. Its production is a logistical masterpiece. Transport during the building of an A380: Ship freight River freight Overland freight Air freight Transportation of airplane parts by road, ship and air The fuselage sections of the A380 made in Hamburg reach the final assembly line in Toulouse by air. To transport such large components, a "special airplane" is needed. This is where the Super Transporter A300-600, better known as "Beluga", comes in. Parts of the A380 from St. Nazaire are transported by ship and, on the last stretch, by road to Toulouse. These transports have become quite a spectacle for the local residents.
The sites where the A380 is made: 1) Toulouse (F) 11,805 employees 2) St. Nazaire (F) 2,308 employees Fuselage 11/12/13/15 3) Cadiz (E) 478 employees Horizontal stabiliser 4) Broughton (GB) 4,882 employees Wings 5) Hamburg (D) 11,477 employees Fuselage, Fuselage shell 15, Rear section 18/19, Vertical stabiliser Airbus a European company From the beginning, the company Airbus Industries was conceived as a European company. The idea emerged during the 1960s, when the European industry wanted to counter the dominance of the American aircraft manufacturers Boeing and McDonnell Douglas with a competitive European product. One country, however, was not in a position to do this alone, since so much capital is needed for such an endeavour. So, on 18th December 1970, the French state-owned company "Aerospatiale" and the German partner "MBB, Dornier and Fokker-VFW" founded Airbus Industries. The Spanish company CASA joined in 1971, followed by British Aerospace in 1979. In 1972, the first airplane built by Airbus, the A300, made its maiden flight. Since 2000, Airbus has been a Division of EADS (the European Aeronautic, Defence and Space Company).
HIGH ALTITUDES IDEAS ABOUT THE FUTURE OF FLYING Flying in the Future How we will fly tomorrow Since man discovered flying, visions have influenced new developments that for people at that time seemed daring. But without those visions, we would still only be dreaming of flying. For air traffic to step up to the demands of the future, engineers and scientists continue to develop new concepts for the future of flying. They deal with questions such as: · The capacity of the airplanes: How can an ever increasing number of passengers be transported in the air? · Environmentally friendly: How can air traffic become more eco-friendly and resources be used more efficiently? Of course, the air passengers' comfort, and the speed with which the travellers will reach their destination, play a big part in the considerations of those looking to the future. In 20 to 30 years time, new hypersonic aircraft could reduce the flying time from Europe to Australia by four to five hours (see page 58). The ideas that are developed by American and European think tanks follow different lines of thought. One of the most prominent ideas is the "Flying Wing" technology. The aircraft designs of today, the so-called "conventional airplanes" are based on passengers being carried in the fuselage, the wing ensuring lift and the tail surfaces maintaining flight stability. However, seeing that the fuselage creates drag and that the horizontal tail creates a downforce, it makes sense to integrate both into the wings, i.e. to design an airplane that consists of just the wings, in which both the passengers and cargo are carried. Development work on stratospheric aircraft offers another possible scenario for the future. Here the aircraft would leave the earth's atmosphere and re-enter it at another point. The necessary technology relies on ecofriendly hydrogen-driven rocket technology a type of large capacity rocket aircraft, which climbs to the highest layers of the atmosphere where it flies with minimum effort. Flying Stingray The Swiss inventor Andreas Reinhard developed an eco-friendly "flying wing" concept that looks like a stingray. This design consists of a "heavier than air" flying wing, which is combined with the technological advantages of "lighter than air" elements, as in balloons and zeppelins. By using the innovative liquid crystal-polymer fibres (which are ten times stronger than steel), the important ratio between strength and weight can be increased enormously. Because of the huge volume of the wing in larger airplane applications, it could be filled with helium instead of air. With the additional lift, the required take-off and landing distances could be shortened, but also a lot of fuel could be saved.
Dr. Jost Seifert, Director of Programming Technology, Technik Bauhaus Luftfahrt I have been with the think tank "Bauhaus Luftfahrt" for over two years. Our organisation was created with the explicit goal of finding new ideas and alternative solutions for the future of flying. Due to the fascination of flying and the spirit of invention of engineers in the past, the safest and eco-friendliest airplanes are being built. In order to explore completely new avenues and to better understand the needs of the future, we at Bauhaus Luftfahrt work hand in hand with other disciplines, for instance, economists, computer scientists, geographers, physicists and sociologists. In addition, we explore how entire transport systems can be optimised and different modes of transport can be integrated with each other. On the technical side, a hybrid of technologies could be the most promising concept for the future. The idea behind this is that two technologies are combined to create one better overall system. As an example, the Claire Liner combines the double-decker cabin in the fuselage with the box-wing design. This is our preferred solution, because the wing doesn't have to go right through the cabin. The "Claire Liner", a concept developed by the German think tank "Bauhaus Luftfahrt", at first glance looks quite similar to current airplanes. However, contrary to other jets, whose wing tips turn upwards to form the so called winglets (compare page 28) the wings of the "Claire Liner" reach back to be joined to the empennage at the tail. In this so-called "Box-wingDesign", one wing is swept forward, and the other one backward. Both wings create upward lift and, at the same time, take over the stabilising function of the horizontal tail. And since the fuselage has the shape of a dolphin, drag is reduced, further enhancing the efficiency of the airplane. Flying with the sun The explorer Bertrand Piccard is working on a revolutionary solar aircraft, the "Solar Impulse". At 80 metres, the "Solar Impulse" has a similar wingspan to the Airbus A380 particularly to offer a vast area for the high-efficiency solar panels (200 Watt hours/ kg) and lithium-battery. After all, the 'sunflyer' must also be able to fly at night. This idea was developed at Technicon Lausanne. The EU-Projekt VELA The VELA-research project (Very Efficient Large Aircraft), supported by the EU from 2002 to 2005, under the leadership of Airbus and with 17 European partners, has achieved fundamental findings in all aspects of future aircraft engineering. If it were to be built, "VELA" would have a wing span of 100 metres, more than 20 metres greater than the Airbus A380. With the possibility of accommodating passengers, cargo, fuel and systems within the wing, a tubular fuselage would not be necessary. This leads to a lighter weight and better aerodynamics. It was calculated that up to 30% fuel would be saved, and that noise pollution would be reduced compared to today's airplanes. The VELA project produced a large data base, which is useful for future planning in the design of 'Flying Wing' airplanes. In addition to the usual aspects such as aerodynamics, flight mechanics and structures, the cabin design, passenger evacuation and passenger acceptance were also analysed. Follow-on projects to VELA are intended to delve deeper and wider into these new-found results.
Outpost in Space Astronauts from various countries carry out research on the International Space Station ISS. And what else? Have a look for yourself on page 68. Directions from Space There would be no GPS in the car without the navigation satellites. On page 70 we answer the question, "How do the satellites help us to know where we are?" News from Space Communications satellites deliver a wide range of television programmes to people all over the world. Find out how it's done on page 72.
In Orbit Observing the Earth from Space Earth observation satellites scan the planet by day and night. Find out on page 74 how they help to protect our climate and the environment. Taxi into Space There would be no space flight without the launcher rockets. We describe how modern rockets are built and how they work on page 76. Excursions into Space Tourists might soon be able to enjoy the experience of weightlessness in space. You can read about what a trip to space would be like on page 78.
IN ORBIT ISS AND ASTRONAUTS Outpost in Space Astronauts from different countries undertake research on the International Space Station ISS The ISS is the biggest technology project and space laboratory of all times: an outpost for mankind in space, offering excellent opportunities for science and research in the areas of medicine, biology, physics, materials science and space research under zero gravity conditions. For example, the vestibular system (our sense of balancing), the cultivation of protein crystals, as well as questions regarding plasma research and radiation biology are studied here. The main aim is to make new discoveries in science and technology and then turn them into practical applications to make life easier for mankind back on Earth. But research is also undertaken for future flights to Mars. As an example, we need to know how plants grow in zero gravity conditions, because astronauts need to cultivate them for their food when they are in a spacecraft or on a space station for long periods of time. At the moment, the sixteen nations that are part of this gigantic research project are the eleven member states of the European Space Agency ESA, together with the United States, Canada, Japan, Brazil and Russia. The ISS proves that peaceful exploration of space is not only possible but also worthwhile, and to the advantage of all partners. Claudie Haigneré, ESA Astronaut and Advisor to the ESA Director General To become an astronaut is a very long process. You need to go through medical, psychological, physiological and physical tests. Plus, you have to prove your professional skills (scientist or engineer or test pilot) and learn how to become a multi-function engineer! You should be able to manoeuvre a spaceship, but also to fix a drawer! I have had the chance to go into space twice. In 1996, I spent 16 days on board the Russian orbiting space station MIR, and in 2001, I went to Star City in Russia, to fly to the International Space Station for the ANDROMÈDE mission, which lasted 10 days. From these flights, I keep in mind three main experiences: The first one is microgravity, also called weightlessness or zero gravity. Second, it is looking through the window and seeing the dark cosmos on one side, and the fragile planet Earth on the other side. We realize how delicate our planet is and that we must do everything in our power to protect it for the long term. Last, but not least, it is the experience of the amazing cooperation between the international members of the team. The International Space Station ISS consists of several modules; the most important ones are: The ISS orbits around the globe once every 90 minutes at a height of 350 to 400 kilometres and at the immense speed of 27,000km/h. This project began in November 1998 with the first nucleus of the ISS, the Russian module "Sarja", launched from Baikonur. Since then, three of the planned seven modules have been assembled and dispatched into space. The ISS has been habitable since November 2000 and has since been the workplace for changing teams of astronauts. Sleeping quarters, research laboratories and so-called supply modules have been built in space. The space station is to be completed in the year 2010. By that time, it will cover the same area as a football field, weigh 454 tonnes, contain six laboratories (two American, two Russian, one European and one Japanese) and four supply modules. At some stage, in the not too distant future, the station will also be used as a waystation in space for manned flights to Mars. Space flight in numbers 22,000 respondents sent their job application to join the ESA astronaut corps in 2007. 438 days was the length of time the Russian cosmonaut Waleri Poljakow spent in space from 1994 until 1995 in the space station MIR, thereby establishing the record for being the longest time in space. 115 kilograms is how much a space suit weighs on earth. Including the donning of special underwear, it takes an astronaut 45 minutes to get dressed. 15 sunrises can be observed by the ISS crew when they orbit the earth for 24 hours. Sarja (1) was the first module of the ISS. Initially, it provided the energy supply and navigation; today it is used as a cargo module. Swesda (2) is the Russian accomodation and service module. At the back of the Swesda is an interface connection where the Sojus and the European ATV spacecraft dock. Destiny (3) is the American laboratory module of the ISS. Experiments are conducted in areas such as micro-gravity, life sciences, biology, ecology, earth sciences, space exploration and technology. Columbus (4) is the European laboratory module of the ISS, which is used for research in the areas of biology, materials including liquids, as well as space and medicine. Columbus was attached to the space station on 11th February 2008. Kibõ (5) is the Japanese contribution to the ISS. In this laboratory module, the primary areas of research are space medicine, biology and materials sciences.
Space Shuttle / ATV A requirement for the operation and use of a space station such as the ISS is a suitable space launcher. The American Space Shuttle is the ideal work horse for the continuous assembly and servicing of a big space station; this was also how the European research laboratory "Columbus" was brought to the ISS. Pivotal maintenance tasks are now also taken over by the European unmanned space vehicle ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle); to some extent, it is becoming the "lifeline" of the ISS by delivering fresh supplies of fuel, food, water and commodities. When the ATV is attached to the ISS, it uses its 2,261kg of fuel for the socalled "Re-boost Manouvres", which periodically increase the height of the orbit by five to seven kilometres. This is to counter its steady decrease due to the frictional resistance of the earth's atmosphere. At the end of its six months mission, the ATV takes on two tonnes of solid waste and about 260 litres of liquid waste from the ISS. When the ATV re-enters the earth's atomosphere in a controlled manner over the Pacific it burns up. The first ATV, called "Jules Verne", was launched on 9th March 2008 with an Ariane 5 from the European spaceport Kourou in French Guiana. The mission ended on 29th September 2008 with the controlled re-entry and burn-up of the ATV in the earth's atmosphere. Columbus: Europe's space laboratory The docking of the Columbus laboratory on 11th February 2008 represented the biggest ever European manned space flight mission. With the help of a huge robotic arm, the research laboratory was lifted to the right place and then connected to the ISS by the astronauts. This not only marked the beginning of the deployment of two ESA astronauts, Léopold Eyharts of France and Hans Schlegel of Germany, who commenced with experiments involving space medicine, it was also the start of the planned ten to fifteen years of the Columbus laboratory at the ISS.
IN ORBIT NAVIGATIONAL SATELLITES Directions from Space The European "Galileo" programme guarantees the satellite navigation of the future They are almost standard nowadays: More and more cars are equipped with navigation systems that use friendly voices to guide drivers to their destinations. Satellite navigation not only increases driver and passenger comfort no unintended detours and no battling with folded maps it also improves safety. The driver can concentrate on the driving while the navigation system looks for the appropriate route. Modern navigation systems use signals from the American Global Positioning System (GPS), which has been in service since the early 1990s and currently uses 32 satellites. But the idea goes back much further: The German visionary, Karl Hans Janke registered a patent for a satellite-based "location identifier" in 1939, which was essentially the same as the ones used nowadays. At the beginning of the 1990s, the European Union decided to develop a European satellite navigation system, so as not to be entirely dependent on the American GPS system. 30 Galileo satellites should be transmitting their signals from 2013 on. These transmissions will not only allow a much more precise determination of location than today, (Galileo will be able to pinpoint a location with an accuracy of about one metre; GPS is only accurate up to ten metres), but will also be able to use modern technology to provide numerous other applications in the future. These applications will include navigation for the blind, automatic navigation for automobiles and the possibility of tracing missing children. The two test satellites "Giove 1" and "Giove B", which were sent into orbit in 2005 and 2008, are being used by the engineers to gather data and experience for the final implementation of the system. 30 navigation satellites will then be sent into orbit between 2010 and 2013. The European Union and more than ten other countries are cooperating on the project, which will herald a new age of satellite navigation. 30 Galileo satellites will be circling the earth in 2013. Their orbits are separated into three "planes", which are angled at 65 degrees to the equator. Ten satellites are distributed equally around each of the three planes; this ensures that almost anywhere on the planet signals from at least four satellites will be received. How do satellites know where we are? The principle of satellite navigation is relatively simple: Every satellite sends a permanent digital signal, which contains information pertaining to its exact position and the time. Our navigation systems receive these signals and can ascertain how long the signal took to reach that particular position by comparing the time the signals were sent with their own internal clock. The device can thus determine exactly how far away the satellite is at any particular moment. If the navigation system device receives the signal one-tenth of a second after the satellite has sent it, for example, it would use a calculation involving the speed of light (for our purpose 300,000km/s) to determine that its current location is 30,000km away from the satellite. To determine its exact location, however, a navigation system must be able to receive signals from several (preferably four) satellites at the same time. The device can then calculate its exact location by determining the respective distances of all the satellites in relation to each other and its own position, as well as the relative angles. r N z x y
What Galileo will do There are various possible applications for the European navigation system Galileo: Private navigation: Everyone will be able to use Galileo's transmissions for personal navigation purposes. Security: Where precise localisation can be a decisive factor for people's safety (like in sea and air travel) Galileo will set new standards. Economy: Companies can pay for specific information in connection with geographical localisation; for example, to assist the search for natural resources. Police, customs and coastguard: Galileo will facilitate the work of these services by providing precise time and location information Rescue operations: Coordinates for search and rescue operations can be determined to within a one-metre radius. The most exact clocks in orbit The accuracy of satellite location determination depends on the precision of the transmitted time signal. This is why the Galileo satellites will be equipped with atomic clocks, which use atomic resonance frequencies as a basis for measuring time. The Galileo satellites will have specially developed hydrogen-atomic clocks. These timekeepers use "ultrafine" frequencies, enabling them to be extremely accurate. In fact, the clocks are so precise that it would take a million years for them to be one second too slow.
IN ORBIT COMMUNICATION SATELLITES News from Space How satellites support diversity in communications and television They can be seen everywhere nowadays: the so-called "satellite dishes", which are capable of receiving numerous television programmes from distant countries. But how do the television pictures get to the "dishes"? One of the first people to hit upon the idea of using satellites for wireless communications was the American author Arthur C. Clarke, who wrote the literary science-fiction classic "2001 A Space Odyssey". In a science journal, printed as early as 1945, he described how the earth could be covered with satellite transmissions from just three different orbital stations. Clarke built on the work of Walter Hohmann, who had already figured out in the 1920s that a satellite circling the earth at an altitude of 35,730 kilometres above the equator would appear to be stationary above the earth's surface. Now, all communications and TV satellites are circling the earth on such a "geostationary" orbit. The first geostationary communications satellite was the American-made Syncom-2, which was also the first to solve the problem of how the antenna could continue to point earthwards when the main body of the satellite was permanently rotating around its own axis. The Franco-German satellite "Symphonie", which was launched into orbit in 1974, incorporated radically new and innovative technology. However, the satellite could not be used for commercial purposes, as NASA would not authorise the commercial use of its launchers. This experience was a vital impulse for the development of the European launcher "Ariane". Nowadays, much international and national broadcasting is received via modern communications satellites based on the "Eurostar" platform. Mobile radio and telephony, international transmissions, radio, internet and television including the new HDTV would not be possible on this scale without satellite communications. People who receive their television channels via terrestrial cable or antenna still profit from satellite technology. The reports from news correspondents and images from faraway places are usually sent around the world using so-called "satellite uplinks". The Eurostar satellite series has been one of the most successful communications and television satellites in the world (or above it) since 1990. The illustration shows the latest model, the Eurostar 3000. 23 Eurostar satellites are currently circling the planet, in the service of numerous television providers. Stationary satellites? For satellite-supported communication purposes, it is important that the satellite transmissions reach the receiver consistently and at a steady rate. The satellite should therefore always be located in the same position above the earth; otherwise, we would not receive any television images when the satellite was on the other side of the globe. This is why communications and television satellites travel on a so-called "geostationary orbit", which means that they circle the earth over the equator at an altitude of 35,800 kilometres. At this height, the duration of an orbit is exactly 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds, or exactly one day. If the satellite circles the earth in the same direction as the earth's rotation, it will stay directly above one particular spot on the surface. It is thus capable of sending strong and regular signals to the receivers. 35,80 0km
Calculation of a geostationary orbit In orbit, the centrifugal force is equal to the gravitational force, which holds the satellite in place The orbital velocity of a geostationary satellite corresponds exactly to the value needed for the satellite to circle the earth once per day. Auxiliary calculation: Minus the radius of the Earth: above the earth's surface. Explanation of the values: G Gravitational Constant, M Earth's mass, r Satellite`s distance from the centre of the earth, Angular velocity, T Duration of orbit (exactly 23h 56min 4s) Transponder: The satellite's receiver/transmitter unit People who use satellite television are sometimes required to change the channel settings because a particular transmitter has changed its "transponder". What does that mean? The transponder is a central element of every communications and television satellite. The transponder is both receiver and transmitter (hence the name Transmitter-resPonder). It receives signals transmitted from the television companies, amplifies them, and sends them back down to the receiving area. Modern television satellites, such as the Eurostar 3000, are fitted with 20 to 80 transponders, and sometimes up to 20 of those are dedicated to transmitting and receiving television programmes. Many channels, many uses Satellites are nowadays used for nearly everything that involves communication.. Television is just one of the uses. The new digital television channels are also sent via satellite to our receivers. In the future, mobile phones will increasingly utilise satellite technology for transmissions because the terrestrial networks are becoming ever more crowded. And in the times to come, the internet will likely also take a detour via a satellite before finding its way into our homes.
IN ORBIT SATELLITES 74 Observing the Earth from Space How satellites help to protect the environment Our earth is a space ship travelling through space. The astronauts the inhabitants of our planet have to take everything they need with them; it is not possible to stop somewhere to take new supplies on board. That is why we should take care and protect everything we need for our survival on our journey through space. The air that we breathe, the water we drink and the climate, which supports the growth of our food. In a sense, protecting the environment and the climate is nothing more than ensuring our survival. To do this, however, we need an exact picture of the damage and the changes that are happening on earth. And, of course, that picture is best taken from a distance. Just like a move in a game of football can only be fully appreciated if the camera keeps a certain distance (and not only follows the ball up close), the extent and significance of the damage to our environment can really only be properly observed from space. Earth observation satellites circle the earth on a polar orbit crossing the North and South Poles. As the earth revolves around its own axis, the satellites can systematically "scan" every little nook and cranny. Responsible for this important mission are the earth observation satellites, which circle the earth at a height of approximately 800km (which is roughly 100 times higher than where normal passenger jets fly). The satellites deliver precise images and data of harmful substances in the atmosphere, of the polar ice caps' and tropical rain forests' conditions and of the extent of the damage caused by environmental catastrophes including, for example, oil tanker spills. The respective authorities in charge are thus able to react faster to specific problems. One of the most successful European observation satellites is the Envisat (ENVIronmental SATellite) shown in the picture. After ten years of building it, the satellite was lifted into orbit by the Ariane launcher in March 2002. Ever since, Envisat has been delivering important data pertaining to environmental and climatic changes. In 2008, the Envisat's "Sciamachy" instrument was able to prove the rise of the man-made greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere for the first time by using satellite measurements alone. The images illustrate the concentration of CO2 (1) over the most densely populated regions of Europe. In 2006, this Envisat image captured the smoke arising from raging fires burning across the state of Victoria (2) in the southeastern corner of Australia. More than ten massive blazes burnt around 420,000 hectares. In 2002, Envisat was able to determine the exact scale of an oil slick (3) that had resulted from a tanker accident just off the coast of Spain. The information from the satellite enabled the authorities to react with counteractive measures.
Envisat, Europe's largest and most complex Earth observation satellite, is helping scientists gain a better understanding of the effects of global warming, El Niño, climatic changes and the depletion of the ozone layer, as well as variations in ocean levels, ice caps, vegetation and the composition of the atmosphere. e ts Envisat eleme, nbundle of scientific instruments. incipl a A satellite is, in pr Envisat: nt instruments on The most importa MIPAS looks at AATSR measuresthe temperature of the surface of the sea. infrared emissions in the atmosphere. form MERIS gives in nding ation understa for a precise orld's oceans of how the w ng. are changi e HYanalysesth SCIAMAC mposition of o lc chemica sphere. the atmo MWR measures the humidity of the atmosphere and the clouds. Other European earth observation satellites Aeolus: Observation of wind currents (under development). Champ: Measures the earth's gravitational and magnetic fields. CryoSat: Ice research (being built). GOCE: Examines the internal composition of the earth (launch in 2009). TerraSAR: Measures changes on the earth's surface. DORIS observ GOMOS analyses the ozone profiles in the atmosphere. and registers lcanic glacial and vo activity.
IN ORBIT LAUNCHER 76 Taxi into Space Launchers transport satellites into orbit The 20th century proudly called itself the "rocket age" although rockets had already been in existence for over 800 years: The first recorded rocket launch took place in the 13th century in the Chinese town of Keifeng. Up to the 20th century, rockets were primarily used to blast fireworks into the air. It was only in the 1920s that people started experimenting in earnest with the idea of using rockets for other purposes, particularly in the military, but others also had the idea that this could one day lead to flying into space. For a long time, it was believed that rockets could only fly within the atmosphere, because the principle of recoil was misunderstood. It was thought that the rapidly escaping gas particles would push against the air particles. But then it was discovered that recoil also works in space, which is devoid of air. This discovery led to the rocket becoming the ideal mode of transport to conquer space. It was only in 1957 that a rocket left the gravitational field of the earth for the first time and placed a satellite in orbit: the Russian R-7, which launched the legendary satellite "Sputnik" into space. From then on, the innovations came thick and fast in the field of spaceflight. In the 60s and 70s, it was called the "space race", primarily the competition between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Different rocket types were developed, such as the Russian "Soyuz", the "Saturn" of the Americans, and eventually, the European "Ariane" rocket. The latter was first launched on 24th October 1979 from the spaceport Kourou in French Guiana. While rocket launches were initially made for research purposes, space flight has now gained mainly economic importance. There are commercially operated TV and navigation satellites and earth observation satellites. For example, one result has been the discovery of new mineral deposits. Although rocket launches have now become an almost everyday occurrence, every countdown remains an exciting adventure for the engineers and scientists involved. The Ariane 5 lifts off The European launcher Ariane 5 takes off from Kourou in French Guiana, just like its predecessor (Ariane 4). As this location is close to the equator, the satellites can be transported into orbit with the least effort. The Ariane 5 can therefore carry 1520% more cargo than the American rockets that lift off from Florida. Lift off (1). Ignition of the main engine of the stage. 7.05 seconds later the two boosters are ignited. The launcher flies the first six seconds vertically, then turns towards the East. Jettisoning of the boosters (2). At a height of 50km, the boosters are jettisoned. What powers rockets? Rocket engines work according to the principle of recoil (see page 32), similar to the jet engines of modern airplanes. However, while airplane engines suck in the required oxygen from the surrounding air in order to burn the fuel, rockets must carry it with them after all, they have to operate in a space devoid of any air. Two basic propulsion principles are used: The solid fuel rocket uses fuel and oxygen combined into a thick propellant mixture, which compacts into a solid mass in the fuel tank. Once a solid fuel rocket has been ignited, it can no longer be shut down. In comparison, the liquid fuel rocket has two separate tanks for fuel and oxygen. Pumps ensure that the two ingredients are mixed in the correct ratio and led into the combustion chamber where they are ignited. To drive the pumps, a small part of the fuel is burnt. With the resultant hot gas, a turbine is powered, which in turn drives the pumps. This is why they are also called "turbo pumps". Generally, rockets with solid and liquid fuel have different pros and cons, which is why they are often used together as is the case for the Ariane 5.
Jettisoning of the cargo casing (3). At a height of 100km, the cargo casing that protects the satellite from resistance caused by the earth's atmosphere is discarded. 1st stage (4). After the first stage has ensured that a high velocity has been reached, it is discarded at a height of 150km. 2nd stage (5). After about ten minutes following lift-off, the second stage is ignited. It transports the cargo to the final destination in its orbit. Releasing the satellites (6). The 2nd stage is burnt out 27 minutes after lift-off. The satellites are released at their final destination in orbit. The Ariane 5 The two-stage launcher Ariane 5 can transport two satellites with a combined weight of 18t into a low earth orbit. The second stage can be ignited twice during the flight. This makes it possible to reach an orbit closer to earth but with a much heavier cargo. It can also be more flexible and station the two satellites in different positions within the orbit. Two boosters (a), auxiliary rockets with solid fuel, ensure the necessary thrust at the launch. Without the boosters, the Ariane 5 would not lift off the ground. The first stage (b) is bigger than the second one because it burns for a longer time and hence needs to contain more fuel. With the engines of the first stage, the rocket leaves the earth's atmosphere and reaches the peak of its acceleration. The second stage (c) of the Ariane 5 delivers the satellite to its final orbit. It carries at its top the cargo of satellites called the "payload". The satellites are stored within a casing, which is jettisoned relatively early on in the mission, while the first stage is still burning. An on-board computer (d) controls the launch and the course as well as the functions of the launcher. There is a second computer as a back-up. Theequationforarocketlaunch burn out speed The basic rocket equation, also called the Ziolkowski Equation, determines the speed of the rocket, when the burnt fuel is ejected at a certain speed. Therefore m0 is the mass at the launch and m1 is the final mass (after the fuel has been burnt). Va is the exhaust gas velocity. It can so be said that: The final velocity V1 is higher with higher values of Va. Equally, it is higher when the end mass is smaller. This is why rockets consist of stages: The more mass is jettisoned, the smaller the end mass will be, and the higher the final speed that will be achieved. exitspeed mass at start/launch (combustion) cut-off massperformanceofmatter
IN ORBIT SPACE TOURISM Excursions into Space Will tourists soon be enjoying a bout of zero gravity? The aircraft looks almost like a normal passenger jet. The only obvious differences are its enormous wingspan and the rocket nozzle at the rear end of the fuselage. The passengers boarding the craft look slightly different as well; they are all wearing the same lightweight pressure suits. The passenger seating is somewhat different as well. The reclining and swivelling seats are fitted at right angles to the direction of the aircraft. During the ascent, the swivelling "beds" offset the angle of climb so that it is hardly noticeable. The first part of the journey is comparable to a long haul flight. The aircraft climbs to 12,000 metres. The view is breathtaking. After 45 minutes, the pilot makes an announcement. It is time to start the rocket engine. There is a loud roar and the passengers are pressed into their seats. The aircraft accelerates at 3g (the passengers are subjected to a force three times as strong as that of the Earth's gravitational field) and at Mach 3 (3 times faster than the speed of sound). After 80 seconds, the aircraft has reached an altitude of 60 kilometres, the rocket engine switches itself off and the plane continues on a curved "parabolic" flight path, which continues until it reaches an altitude of 100km. The passengers unfasten their seat belts and float around the cabin. They are free to move from window to window, holding on to hand grips, they admire the stunning spectacle: the blackness of space, and, in all its glory, the blue planet below. Robert Lainé, Chief Technical Officer, EADS Astrium Flying in the air and going up into space to explore what is unreachable to most humans have been long-lasting dreams of humanity. Today, flying is no longer just a dream, it is available to everybody. Manned space flight started just 50 years ago with Gagarin, followed by the exploration of the moon and then the regular orbital flights of astronauts to the MIR and the International Space Station. With few exceptions, the dream of going into orbit today is only possible for professional astronauts. After the first test flights by Space Ship 1 to 100km altitude, we think that many people are interested in having the fascinating experience of such a sub-orbital flight and experience the view of earth from space and a few minutes of weightlessness. Our vision is to make the dream of space flight possible for many people in the world. After only three minutes, the passengers are told to fasten their seatbelts before the aircraft descends into the atmosphere on its return journey to earth. It is a smooth re-entry and for a little while, when the deceleration suddenly reaches 4,5g, the passengers really do feel like astronauts. After a short while, however, the pilot re-activates "aviation mode", turns on the two turbine engines and sets a course for the home airport. The space adventure has now come to an end for the passengers. That is what an excursion into space might look like in 2020, when tourists will be able to experience zero gravity. EADS Astrium is developing a "space plane" that is capable of taking tourists on a so-called "sub-orbital flight". At approximately 200,000 euros, the flights will be relatively expensive. However, you would have paid an equivalent price for a flight from Berlin to London in the early days of commercial aviation. The large demand is likely to soon make tickets cheaper, so that many of us will be able to afford a short trip into space. What is sub-orbital flight? During a sub-orbital flight the aircraft can reach an altitude of 100 kilometres but does not enter into a stabile orbit round the Earth. You need much higher speeds to reach such an orbit the various satellites or the ISS are in constant orbit, for example. During a sub-orbital flight, the aircraft leaves the Earth's atmosphere and fleetingly crosses space in a parabolic arc before re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The interior of the space plane was developed by the celebrated designer Marc Newson.
The Space Plane is being developed for space tourism by EADS Astrium . A brief history of space tourism Although space tourism is still some way off in the future, it already looks back on a considerable experimental history. There were many experiments with sub-orbital flights as far back as the 1950s and 60s. Starting from the back of a B52 bomber in 1961, the test pilot Joe Walker flew to an altitude of 106 kilometres in his X-15 rocket plane (1). However, the aerospace engineers turned their attention to orbital flights from the mid 1960s, and the idea of sub-orbital flights did not receive any more attention until 1996, when a new "Ansari-X-Prize" was introduced. The prize was to be awarded to the first aircraft that could carry the weight of three people to an altitude of 100 kilometres twice within the space of two weeks. The team from experimental pilot Burt Rutan won the prize in October 2004 in "SpaceShip One" (2), which, according to the wishes of its inventor, should also be used for space tourism.
From Earth to Mars and Back Which requirements have to be met so that we might travel to other planets? You will find your itinerary on page 82. A View into the Depths of Outer Space We are not able to journey into the immeasurable depths of space, but space telescopes can show us what it looks like. Page 84.
Interstellar Space Travel Unbelievable Journeys through Space Will we fly through hyperspace into foreign galaxies one day? On page 86 we give answers to the question: "How realistic are science fiction scenarios?" Neighbours in Space Are there any other intelligent beings in space? We entertain a few thoughts on the subject on page 88.
INTERSTELLAR SPACE TRAVEL OTHER PLANETS 82 From Earth to Mars and Back Travelling to other planets Ever since mankind knew that "stars" like Mars, Venus and the other planets are our planetary neighbours, people have been fascinated by the notion of travelling to them. However, only unmanned spacecraft have so far succeeded in such missions. The American probes "Pioneer" and "Voyager" and their European equivalents "Cassini-Huygens", "Mars Express" and "Venus Express" have sent, and are still sending images and data from outer space. High-tech cameras and robots have reached almost every planet in our solar system. They have even visited the sun, as well as some asteroids and comets. How long then will it be until mankind has the technology to travel to other planets in our solar system, how long would such a journey take, and which planet would be most suitable for the first expedition? It seems most likely that our neighbouring planet Mars would be the most interesting destination for the first expedition of this kind, because it has a number of similarities to our Earth. Several space probes have already landed on Mars, so we have a great deal of information about the conditions on that planet. A manned mission to Mars is considered one of the greatest visions for space travel in the next few decades. The results of the latest research by NASA's Phoenix Mission and the European Space Organisation ESA are intended, among other reasons, to prepare for such a journey. If the scientists' predictions are correct, then it is only a question of time (about 20 to 30 years) before mankind will begin to reach that planet and perhaps create a second home for humankind. The completion of the ISS (see page 68) as an intermediate way station in space, is an important prerequisite for such an undertaking.A manned expedition to our neighbouring planet is already considered feasible, but it would still present unprecedented risks. The flight would take six months and the whole mission would last more than two A manned expedition to our neighbouring planet is already considered feasible, but it would still present unprecedented risks. The flight would take six months and the whole mission would last two years. Up until now, astronauts have been guided by ground control every step of the way. However, astronauts on a Mars mission would be left pretty much on their own to deal with any crisis that may occur. Would the astronauts even be able to stand living in such cramped conditions for such a long time? How would the human body react to being in a state of zero gravity for such a long time and how could the long exposure to radiation be dealt with? These are all questions that researchers are trying to answer through experiments on the ISS.. The most importa nt planetary missi o 5 1) Pioneer 10 wa s launched in 1972 and was the first spa and to send the firs cecraft to cross the t images of Jupiter. asteroid belt It ende the earth in 2003. Pi oneer 11 was launche d its mission in 1997. Its last signal reached d in 1973 and was images directly fro the first spacecraft m Saturn. Its missi to send on ended in 1995. 2) Voyager 1 wa s launched in 1977 and, together with researched the pla Voyager 2, this spacec nets Jupiter, Saturn, raft Uranus and Neptu moons, rings and ma ne, along with 48 of gnetic fields. In Feb their ruary 1998, Voyag Pioneer 10 and has er 1 overtook the pro since become the be most distant man-m Voyager sent back ade object. In autum the first images of n 1990, the earth to be tak en from outside the 3) In October 1997 solar system. , the European Ca ssini/Huygens missi Cassini has been cir on to Saturn was lau cling the planet sin nched. ce 2004 and provid its composition. In es spectacular findin 2005, the probe Hu gs of ygens landed on Sa has an atmosphere turn's moon Titan, that is probably clo which sest to the earth's original atmosphere. 4) The European Ro setta mission was launc hed in 2004. It is sch rendezvous with the eduled to have a comet Churyumov -Gerasimenko in 20 research the compo 14 and is schedule sition of this body d to coming from the de pths of space. 5) The Venus Ex press has been on a mi ssion to inspect ou planet at close ran r second neighbouri ge since 2005. ng
The Planets of our Solar Systems Our solar system consists of its sun and nine planets on elliptical orbits around it. Some of these planets are accompanied by moons. In addition, the sun is also circled by asteroids and comets. Our solar system is estimated to be 4 billion years old. Venus, Earth, Mercury and Mars are among the smaller planets (up to 13,000km circumference). Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are the largest planets (with circumferences larger than 48,000km). The Earth, Jupiter, Mercury und Mars are rocky, or terrestrial, planets. They are mainly made up of metals and rocks. Further characteristics of these planets are their low speeds of rotation, high densities, a firm planetary surface, few moons and few rings. Another group is made up of the so-called gas planets such as Neptune, Saturn, Jupiter and Uranus. They consist mainly of helium and hydrogen and they have low densities and high speeds of rotation. Mercury Venus Sun Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Mars Express: Pathfinder on the Red Planet The first European Mars mission, Mars Express, was launched on 2nd June 2003 from the space centre Baikonur in Kazakhstan. The probe, made up of an orbiter (which circles Mars) and the lander Beagle 2, reached Mars after a six-month journey on 2nd December 2003. The orbiter maps the planet's surface, its structure, geology and mineralogy and it analyses the atmosphere. From January 2004, the high resolution stereo camera (HRSC) sent the first pictures of the surface of the planet. These spectacular 3D colour images in a hitherto unparalleled resolution, as well as further data transmitted by the mission, confirmed the availability of water ice and carbon dioxide ice on Mars' southern polar cap. One of the most ambitious aims of the project is the search for traces of early life on Mars. The lander Beagle 2 is named after the ship with which Charles Darwin once crossed the world`s oceans on his search for the development of species. The station landed on the surface of the planet and was supposed to spend six months there researching the terrain and rock constitution on Mars. To the great disappointment of the researchers, however, Beagle 2 failed to establish radio contact with either the orbiter or the radio telescopes on earth and was reported "missing". However, the orbiter's mission has been deemed successful and has been extended.
INTERSTELLAR SPACE TRAVEL A VIEW INTO OUTER SPACE 84 A View into the Depths of Outer Space How space telescopes produce a new picture of the universe Over the last thousand years, we humans have learnt to be humble: Whereas our ancestors in the Middle Ages believed that we were at the centre of the universe, we now know that we are part of a remote solar system at the edge of one of billions of galaxies within the universe. Our knowledge about the universe has grown enormously in the last 50 years, due to ever improving observation and sensing technologies. Huge advances in our knowledge about the universe have been made since 1990 thanks to Hubble, the space telescope, which was developed jointly by NASA and the European space agency ESA. Hubble circles the earth at a height of 600 kilometres, which is outside the atmosphere. Hubble can therefore take pictures of outer space without the distortion otherwise caused by the atmosphere, and it can also pick up light in the infrared and ultraviolet spectrum, which is light that the earth's atmosphere filters out. These rays are of particular importance to physicists in trying to unravel the "blueprint" of the universe. Black holes are full of secrets and they absorb everything that surrounds them. It was only through Hubble that these black holes could be observed. It is now assumed that they were the "seeds" from which the galaxies once evolved. Research with the space telescope Hubble is also of practical use to us: It helps us to better understand our Earth ranging from the effect of space radiation on our climate to a better knowledge of the matter that makes up our planet. The earth is not an isolated celestial body, but part of a cosmos. Not least thanks to Hubble, scientists are able to view physics in relation to astrophysics. Launching a high-performance observatory such as Hubble into space was a technical feat that engineers and scientists from many countries had worked on for over 20 years. But it was worth the effort: The scientific discoveries made due to Hubble have far exceeded expectations. Space engineers in America and Europe are already working on a new generation of space telescopes: In 2013, the James Webb space telescope is due to be transported into orbit by the Ariane launcher. WhydoestheHubbleorbittheearth? The Hubble can observe outer space without distortions caused by the atmosphere. The earth's atmosphere on the one hand absorbs light, and on the other hand also emits light. In addition, the ozone layer ensures that only limited light beyond the blue end of the spectrum (ultraviolet light) reaches the earth. Towards the red end of the spectrum, a lot of light is absorbed by water vapour. For the purpose of research it is, however, the ultraviolet and infrared radiation that is of utmost importance and only an instrument outside of the atmosphere can receive these unimpaired. The result of an exploding star is a supernova. With the help of the Hubble, the movements of supernovas can be observed and the age of the universe calculated.
The superior vision of the James Webb Our sun is like most other stars, a sphere of glowing gases. Stars are born, live and die in timeframes of millions or even billions of years. Thanks to the Hubble telescope, we now understand the life cycle of stars much better. In 2013, the James Webb space telescope, the successor to Hubble, will start its mission in space. One of the most important instruments on board will be the "super eye" NIRSpec, which has just been developed by EADS Astrium. NIRSpec can pick up the weakest radiation from the furthest galaxy and can observe more than a hundred objects simultaneously. Scientists hope that this will lead not only to new discoveries about the size, but also about the age of the universe: It is assumed that the most distant objects in the universe, which has constantly been expanding since the Big Bang, must mark its rim. A further European contribution is the MIRI (Mid Infrared Instrument). This is an astronomic instrument that observes the 5 and 28 micrometres lengths of the infrared light spectrum. Our solar system is part of a star system or "galaxy" made up of a few hundred billion stars, which we call the "Milky Way". Scientists estimate that there are more than a hundred billion such galaxies in the universe. So there are more stars than grains of sand on all the beaches of the earth put together! Research done by Hubble (1) Galaxy rims. This Hubble image of a "rendezvous" between a small and a large spiral galaxy clearly shows the dust rim of the small galaxy, which has lead to discoveries regarding the matter from which the galaxy is made. (2) Star births. In the star cluster NGC 2074, Hubble was able to observe a firework of star births and so lead scientists to a better understanding of the birth of stars. (3) New matter. Although there are over hundreds of billions of galaxies, they only fill a fraction of space. It has been assumed for a while now that between them must be a type of matter that emerged during the so-called "Big Bang". Hubble has now found evidence of this missing matter between the stars.
INTERSTELLAR SPACE TRAVEL FILM AND REALITY 86 Unbelievable Journeys through Space Will we ever reach the infinite depths of space? A hundred years ago, today's space flight technologies, developed for "just" the moon landings, the international space station ISS and unmanned flights to neighbouring planets within our solar system, would have been seen as pure science fiction. Many science fiction authors and filmmakers, however, are already thinking much further. The "Starship Enterprise" has been cruising through the vast unknown expanses of space for the last forty years. Present day astronauts can merely dream of the kind of technology that led Captain Kirk and his crew to all those adventures in alien worlds. They don't have a "faster than the speed of light" warp-drive available, which would enable them to cover unbelievable distances in space and boldly go where no man has gone before. In the worlds of Star Trek and Star Wars, huge space ships travel through hyperspace, faster than the speed of light, between the various planets of densely populated galaxies. All these concepts assume that higher-dimensional space exists (five or more dimensions) and that folds, or rather warps, of space are possible. Through these, the spacecraft are able to move at perceived speeds well beyond the speed of light, while they actually continue to travel at the speed of light. But since they travel through such a "shortcut" of curved space, they have to cover a shorter distance. In this way, it appears that higher speeds are reached in a shorter period of time. Science fiction authors have always been a few steps ahead of reality, and many of their visions have become reality a few decades later. For this reason, the European Space Agency ESA wants to tap into the pool of ideas of science fiction literature. They have set up a project called "innovative science fiction technology for space travel applications" together with the Swiss Utopia museum "Maison d Ailleurs" and the Swiss foundation "Ours". ESA now wants to study some of the 250 suggestions more closely. At the top of the space agency's wish list are new propulsion systems that can propel spacecraft faster and further through space. Science fiction prepares us for new technologies and creates the wish to have them as well. In the first episodes of Star Trek in the nineteen-sixties, for example, the types of technologies shown, like mobile phones, speech recognition programmes, computer tomography or portable computers, were still dreams of the future. of lig Travelling at the speed Light waves in a vacuum same speed of always propagate at the asthevacuum d.Thisspeedisthereforereferredto theory of on 299.792.458metrespersec t" for short. According to Einstein's ed of ligh e. This value is speed of light, or "the spe est speed anything can mov speed of light is the high relativity, the the letter c. referred to in physics by terthanonec. nlight,noobjectcanbefas Sincenothingisfastertha er, can ed of light or even fast physics, travel at the spe According to the laws of l" out of their time line. ellers would inevitably "fal the trav neys at only be utopian, because of space and time, on jour theory of relativity On the basis of Einstein's ntly for the travellers and differe of light, time would pass fits speeds close to the speed be created in which nothing As a result, a world would their environment. would mean that, upon difference . The effects of the time arture, together in terms of time gnise the place of their dep ce travellers would not reco their return, the spa t them on such a sen ld have passed. Those who ld because too much time wou possible that nobody wou e ceased to exist and it is mission may well hav tion of their journey: destina same can be said for the them. remember them at all. The no longer be waiting for y had wished to travel may Those to whom the
Visionary propulsion systems for future spacecraft Present-day spacecraft propulsion systems are not nearly powerful enough to conquer our own solar system. Scientists and engineers are therefore working on visionary concepts to enable us to get at least somewhere approaching the speed of light. Some of these innovative propulsion systems are already being tested, whereas others are still visions. Nuclear fission or rather nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion would theoretically allow speeds of approximately 10% of the speed of light. This form of energy production will be available in the near and medium-term future. The JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter), which is planned for 2011, is a concrete project based on nuclear fusion. The (100kW) reactors would provide sufficient energy for the onboard systems and for the ion propulsion engines. Antimatter drive. This would be the most effective propulsion conceivable, because antimatter would be converted completely to energy as soon as it came into contact with normal matter. As a result of this collision, the particles would be transformed into waves of energy. The transformation is brought about by using Einstein's famous formula E = mc2. Researchers are sketching plans for such an antimatter propulsion system at Pennsylvania State University. Their project, ICAN-II (Ion Compressed Antimatter Nuclear Engine), proposes to use antimatter radiation to ignite tiny hydrogen bombs at the rear of a spacecraft, so that the energy of the explosions will propel this star cruiser forward. Light propulsion. So-called light-sail cruisers are made up of a large ultra-light sail, attached to which would be the structures for the cabin and life support systems. They are propelled simply by the gentle pressure of light particles (photons). Such a light-glider can accelerate to 1% of the speed of light through sunlight alone. If it needs to go faster, it will require help from lasers stationed in space that get their energy from the sun. The laser would have to accelerate the light-glider for several years before it could reach 22% of the speed of light. Fusion drive. So-called fusion-ramjets do not need to take fuel with them, but rather collect it in the form of tiny particles (e.g. hydrogen atoms) on their way through space. To collect these particles, vast superconductive coils build up electromagnetic fields that stretch out into space in a funnel shape from the nose of the spacecraft. This particle collector would have to have a diameter measuring several thousand kilometres. The energy fields would compress and ionise the collected hydrogen, and guide the resulting particles to the fusion reactor. The American physicist Frobert Bussard discovered this possible method of energy generation as far back as 1960. In principle, long periods of acceleration would be possible with such a propulsion system system, which could bring the spacecraft close to the speed of light. Microwave drive. A shockwave could be generated in front of a spaceship by microwaves radiating from a satellite network, thereby ionising the surrounding air and lighting it up. According to NASA, these UFO-like spacecraft should be ready for take-off about 10,000 times a year from around the year 2040.
INTERSTELLAR SPACE TRAVEL ALIEN INTELLIGENCE 88 Neighbours in Space Are there any other intelligent beings in space? "Are we alone in the universe?" This question is without doubt one of the most interesting topics in space exploration today. Are there other planets in the universe with conditions similar to those on earth that are capable of supporting life? And if there are, has any intelligent life form managed to evolve on any of them? "Absolutely", would have been the answer from Democritus. The ancient Greek philosopher (4th century BC) and the founding father of the theory of atoms, was among the first to propose that there are many worlds in the universe, and that some of them could be inhabited. In the 16th century, the Italian poet and philosopher Giordano Bruno determined that the world is infinite and that, theoretically, there could be an infinite number of life forms on other planets in the universe. Unfortunately, his opinions were deemed heretical and he was burnt at the stake. In 1755, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant also examined the possibility of alien intelligence in his work "Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven". UFOs the alien spaceships UFO is an abbreviation for "Unidentified Flying Object". The term is used to describe objects seen flying in the air that were not readily identifiable at the time of observation. The term is also a colloquialism for "alien spaceship" as is "flying saucer" with which distant intelligent life forms supposedly visit our planet. Most scientists and researchers, however, agree that the chances of UFOs actually being alien spacecraft are extremely slim. The branch of science that is concerned with UFOs is called "ufology", but ufological research remains a discipline that is usually practised by enthusiastic amateurs in their spare time. Alien intelligence theories really started to find widespread interest in the second half of the 19th century, after Charles Darwin's theory of evolution had delivered a coherent model of how complex species could evolve from simpler ones. Astronomers, physicists and other scientists are still searching for alien life in space today. Some concentrate their efforts on finding traces of simple life forms on planets and moons in our own solar system. Others are searching for any inhabitants of far-off worlds, with whom they hope to communicate by means of radio transmissions. Until today, however, no one knows whether there is any other intelligent life form in the universe. The UFO sightings, which have been diligently reported for decades, have usually been the result of optical illusions or fanciful fiction on the part of the observer. Still, this by no means entirely rules out the existence of neighbours in space. Whether or not they actually look like the Hollywood film versions is an entirely different matter. What do our neighbours look like? Here are some answers from Hollywood: Alf (Alien Life Form) (1), the cat lover's irreverent adventures have been inspiring the adulation of television audiences since 1986. ET (2), the hero of Steven Spielberg's science fiction classic "ET the Extra-Terrestrial" from 1982 gave us the immortal quote, "ET phone home".
Messages into space To try and make contact with any alien neighbours, unmanned space probes carry messages with them from earth to outer space. In 1972, when the two interstellar space probes Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 were launched into the great unknown, they were fitted with golden plates, the so-called "pioneer plaques" (1). This was done in the hope that they would one day be discovered by intelligent extraterrestrial life forms, who would thus gain knowledge of the existence of humanity. In 1977, NASA sent the space probes Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 on their journeys to the outer planets. The probes, which are carrying the "golden records" (2), have since left our solar system. The golden data discs contain visual information and audio files (sounds of earth) pertaining to the earth and its inhabitants. It is hoped that an alien civilisation will be able to understand what these are and will have the technology to replay them. In 1974, the largest radio telescope in the world, the 305m Arecibo (Puerto Rico) telescope (3), was used to send out the most powerful purposely-devised signal (4) ever to have been transmitted into outer space. The signal was beamed towards the globular star cluster M13, in the constellation Hercules, and is expected to reach its target in around 21,000 years' time. The less than three minute-long transmission shows drawings of the Arecibo telescope, our solar system and matchstick men, as well as DNA samples and other chemical components from earthly life. Searching for planets with earth-like conditions The European Space Agency ESA is working on a project that is designed to use the "Darwin" system to locate planets that have more or less the same atmospheric conditions as the earth. The mission, which is planned for 2014, is comprised of a fleet of eight spacecraft that will operate at the socalled Lagrange Point L 2, at a distance of 1.5 million kilometres from the earth. At this position, the gravitational forces are exactly equal and balance each other out. This has the effect of leaving the spacecraft in a completely stationary position in space. Darwin is designed to search for traces of life in the atmospheres of distant planets. Six of the spacecraft will be fitted with telescopes and the seventh will focus the light from the other six to simulate a larger mirror than would otherwise be possible. The eighth vehicle will be used for the communication with the earth.
Credits: Title Back/Title: Content Page 03: Page 08: Page 10: Page 12: Page 14: Page 15: Page 17: Page 18: Page 19: Page 20: Page 21: Page 24: Page 25: Page 26: Page 27: Page 28: Page 29: Page 30: Page 31: Cover Picture © faromedia creative network - interactive GmbH & Co KG Dr. Jean J. Botti © Dr. Jean J. Botti Dr. Michael Kerkloh © EADS | LIMS © Fotolia 2004-2009 | Background © Michael Römer Blackboard © iStockphoto LP 2009 | Background © Michael Römer Freighter Conversion, Airbus Beluga, Background © Airbus S.A.S. 2008 Maintenance Check © EADS Maintenance Check, High Tech Goggles © EADS | Background © Michael Römer Cockpit Simulator © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008| Simulator © EADS | Yann Cochard © Yann Cochard | Background © Michael Römer Boy © iStockphoto LP 2009 | Zero-Splice © EADS Alain Porte © Airbus S.A.S. 2008 | Background © Michael Römer Be-200 © 2009 Demand Media, Inc./Max Bryansky Russian AviaPhoto Team Camera Dome © Eurocopter · Images Entreprise 2003 | Drone, CN-235, Background © EADS Montgolfier, Giovanni Alphonso Borelli, Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin, Zeppelin © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008 Berblinger of Ulm © Museum Ulm Lilienthal (1 + 2), Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008| Background © Michael Römer Wilbure and Orville Wright, Farman F60 Goliath © 2002 National Air and Space Museum Louis Blériot, Fokker Albatros D III, Junkers F 13, Junkers Ju 52, Focke Wulf Fw61 © EADS Heinkel He 178, Focke Wulf Fw 190, Dewoitine D520, Havilland Comet, Alouette II, Caravelle, Concorde Boeing 747, Airbus A 300, Airbus A 380 © EADS Lotus-Effect © Michael Römer Riblets © Oliver Meckes/Nicole Ottawa | Prof. Dr. Ingo Rechenberg © Prof. Dr. Ingo Rechenberg | Background © Michael Römer Blackboard © iStockphoto LP 2009 Daniel Bernoulli © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008 | Four Forces Airplane © EADS | Illustration, Background © Michael Römer
Page 32: Page 33: Page 35: Page 38: Page 39: Page 40: Page 41: Page 42: Page 43: Page 44: Page 45: Page 46: Page 47: Page 48: Page 52: Page 53: Page 54: Page 55: Page 56: Page 57: Page 58: Page 59: Page 60: Page 61: Page 62: Page 64: Page 65: Page 68: Page 69: Page 71: Page 72: Page 73: Page 74: Page 75: Page 76: Page 77: Page 78: Page 79: Page 82: Page 83: Page 84: Page 85: Page 87: Page 88: Page 89: Heinkel He 178 © EADS | Illustration © Michael Römer Airbus A380 © Airbus S.A.S. 2008 | Background © Michael Römer Blackboard © iStockphoto LP 2009 | Background © Michael Römer Bambus Rogallo © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008| Dandelion © Fotolia Parafinder/Paralander (1-3) © EADS | Background © Michael Römer Winch Launch, Aerotow, © by pixelio media gmbh 2003-2008 Glider Cockpit © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008| Blackboard © iStockphoto LP 2009 | Background © Michael Römer Remos GX © 2006 REMOS Aircraft GmbH | Dassault Falcon 7X © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008| Socata TBM 850 © EADS Socata Bombardier Learjet 45 © Bombardier 1997-2008 | Cessna 172 Skyhawk © Cessna Aircraft Company 2008 Socata TB21 GT © EADS Socata | DA 42 Diamond, Diamond D-Jet © Diamond Aircraft Industries Beechcraft Kingair © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008| Airbus A318 ACJ © EADS Cessna 400, Cessna Citation Mustang © Cessna Aircraft Company 2008 | Pioneer 300 © UTC Flugschule GmbH Leonardo Da Vinci © Michael Römer | Paul Cornu, De la Cierva, Focke Wulf Fw61 © EADS |Illustration © Michael Römer Swash Plate, Illustration, Background © Michael Römer Blackboard © iStockphoto LP 2009 | Navigation Equipment © EADS | Helicopter © Eurocopter/Images Entreprise 2003 Helicopter (1, 2, 4, 5) © Eurocopter/Images Entreprise 2003 | Helicopter (3) © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008 Background © Michael Römer Fusion Man © Yves Rossy | PAL V © Spark Design Engineering and PAL V 2006 | Background © Michael Römer Fly-by-Wire © EADS | Mini-TEDs © Michael Römer Composites © EADS | A380 Interior © Airbus S.A.S. 2008 | Background © Michael Römer Illustrations © Michael Römer Illustrations © Michael Römer Atmosphere © EADS Airpockets © Demand Media, Inc. 2009/Steve Morris - AirTeamImages | Background © Michael Römer Bell X1 & Chuck Yeager © NASA/SP | Concorde © EADS Blackboard © iStockphoto LP 2009 | Background © EADS Airframe Structure, Assembly Stage, Wing Attach, Tailplanes Attach © Airbus S.A.S. 2008 Jack Rosay, Cabin and Cockpit Fitting, Final Assembly, Maiden Flight, Spraying Airplane, Background © Airbus S.A.S. 2008 Engine Start © Daniel Townsendimages Loading, Transport © EADS | Background © Michael Römer Stingray © EADS | Solar Impulse © European Space Agency 2000-2008 VELA © Boeing 1995-2009 | Dr. Jost Seifert © Dr. Jost Seifert | Background © Bauhaus Luftfahrt Claudie Haigneré © Claudie Haigneré Columbus, ATV, Background © EADS Astrium 2008 Atomic Clock © PTB | Background © EADS Astrium 2008 Illustration © Michael Römer Blackboard © iStockphoto LP 2009 | Background © EADS Astrium 2008 Map (1,2,3) © NASA/SP | Illustration © Michael Römer Illustration, Background © Michael Römer Illustration © Michael Römer Blackboard © iStockphoto LP 2009 | Background © Michael Römer Space Plane Interior, Robert Lainé © EADS Astrium 2008 X-15, SpaceShip One © NASA/SP | Background © EADS Astrium Pioneer 10, Voyager © NASA/SP | Cassiny/Huygens, Venus Express © EADS Astrium 2008 | Rosetta © European Space Agency 2000-2009 Mars Express © European Space Agency 2000-2009 | Illustration © Michael Römer | Background © EADS Astrium 2008 Blackboard © iStockphoto LP 2009 Galaxy Rims, Star Births, New Matter, Background © NASA/SP | James Webb © EADS Astrium 2008 Nuclear Fission, Antimatter Drive, Light Propulsion, Fusion Drive, Microwave Drive © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008 Background © Fotolia 2004-2009 Alf © All Enthusiast, Inc. 2004-2009 | E.T. © Le Doigt.fr Pioneer Plaques © Free Software Foundation, Inc. 2008| Golden Records, Arecibo, Signals © NASA/SP | Background © Michael Römer